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Turbulence-Kolmogorov

# Turbulence-Kolmogorov

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Kolmogorov Hypotheses
Kolmogorov Hypotheses

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05/17/2014

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The Kolmogorov hypotheses
Fundamental questions concerning turbulence scales:

What is the size of the smallest eddies that areresponsible for dissipation of energy?

As the lengthscale
l
decreases do the characteristicvelocity scale
u(l)
and timescale
( )
l
τ
increase, decreaseor remain the same?
Kolmogorov hypothesis of local isotropy
At sufficiently high Reynolds number, the small-scaleturbulent motion
0
ll
<<
are statistically isotropic

Let introduce an assumption:
0
61
l Ll
EI
>
- anisotropic large eddies
EI
Ll
<
-isotropic small eddiesOn what parameters does this statistically universal statedepend?

Rate of energy transfer from large scale
EI
Τ

Kinematic viscosity
ν
which determines the dissipationratebut
ε
Τ
EI
Kolmogorov first similarity hypothesis
In every turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynoldsnumber, the statistics of the small-scale motions have auniversal form that is uniquely determined by

and

Since the small-scale motion is determined by only twoparameters: dissipation rate and viscosity, there areunique length, velocity and time scales that can beformed using dimensional analysis
( )
( )( )
2141413
/  /
ε ν τ  εν ε ν η
η η
u
which are called the Kolmogorov scalesThere are two identities stemming from definition of theKolmogorov scales:
1Re
==
ν η
η η
u
- Kolmogorov scale is small enough fordissipation to be effective
( )
22
η η
τ  ν η ν ε
==
u
- showing that
η
η
1
=
u
provides aconsistent characterization of the velocitygradients of the dissipative eddiesThe ratios of the smallest eddies to largest scales are readilydetermined from the definition of the Kolmogorov scalesand from the scaling introduced earlier
030
lu
ε

210410430
Re,Re,Re
τ  τ  η
η η
uul
Evidently, at high Reynolds number, the scales of smallesteddies are small compared to those of larges eddies

At sufficiently large Reynolds number the ratio
0
l
η
is sosmall that there is a range of scales
l
that are very smallcompared to
l
0
, and yet very large compared with

0
ll
<<<<
η
Since eddies in this range are much bigger than thedissipative eddies, it may be supposed that their Reynoldsnumber is large, and consequently their motion is littleaffected by viscosity. This assumption leads to:
Kolmogorov second similarity hypothesis
In every turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynoldsnumber, the statistics of the motions of scale
l
in the range
0
ll
<<<<
η
have a universal form that is uniquely determined bydissipation rate
and independent of viscosity

It is convenient to introduce a lengthscale
η
60
=
DI
L
so that the range in the above hypothesis can be written as
EI  DI
lll
<<
This lengthscale
L
DI
splits the universal equilibrium range
( )
EI
ll
<
Into two subranges:

The inertial subrange
EI  DI
lll
<<
- determined byinertial effect-viscous effects being negligible

Dissipation subrange
DI
ll
<