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Empfasis - Reducing Battery Dependency Through Energy Harvesting

Empfasis - Reducing Battery Dependency Through Energy Harvesting

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Published by April Ford
Energy Harvesting
Energy Harvesting

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Published by: April Ford on Sep 21, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/09/2015

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A publication of the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of ExcellenceOctober 2004
EMPF Director
Michael D. Frederickson
mfrederickson@aciusa.org
T
here are many opportunities to conserve power and reduce costly battery dependency in theelectronics of military munitions. Energy harvesting can play an important role in addressing thisneed by converting energy from previously unemployed, environmentally-derived sources intousable power.One example of harvestableenergy is excess heat, whichcan be converted intoelectrical energy bythermoelectric materials.Another example is energyderived from mechanicalvibrations and shocks, whichcan be converted to usableenergy by piezoelectricmaterials (Figure 5-1).Many issues remain inoptimizing the performanceof thermoelectric materialssuch as thermophotovoltaics(TPVs). In this area, theEMPF can address issues of packaging, miniaturization,energy conversion efficiency, and manufacturing methods.For military munitions, energy harvesting can reduce dependency on large batteries forlong-range missions. It can also address military needs to withstand a wide range of temperatures,maintain a long shelf life (up to 20 years) and usable life, and withstand high accelerations,shock, and spin.Currently, oxyhalide liquid reserve batteries are used, but present formulations are difficult toproduce in cylindrical battery designs. Liquid reserve systems also require time to increase theirvoltage to a usable level.The main intention for an energy harvesting system is to replace or supplement current batterysystems and create a more efficient form of power. Systems that require power to determineinitial velocity and position at launch would still require a storage battery but would not need along-term battery system.Methods in development, such as TPV power generation, are leading to energy harvestingadvances. Positive attributes of TPVs include improved safety (no initial power) and long shelf life. Their compact size allows conformable integration into munitions.A combination of energy systems can be utilized to form a hybrid energy system, creating a bestmatch for electronic requirements. Hybrid energy systems have the advantages of solid stateelectronics, including durability, compact size, and lack of wet chemicals. Many of these systemsare being developed for a 50,000g HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) round.An energy management system isnecessary to retain the energyproduced and to distribute it in anefficient manner. The U.S. Army isdeveloping a reconfigurable centralenergy management system (Figure5-2). In this system, an ASICcomponent will harvest energy
Empfasis - Reducing Battery Dependency Through Energy Harvestinghttp://www.empf.org/empfasis/oct04/bat1004.htm1 di 203/04/2013 14:35

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