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Characterization of Colombian Quesillo Cheese by Spectrocolorimetry.pdf

Characterization of Colombian Quesillo Cheese by Spectrocolorimetry.pdf

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RAMÍREZ-NAVAS, J.S. Y RODRÍGUEZ DE STOUVENEL, A. Characterization of Colombian Quesillo Cheese by Spectrocolorimetry. VITAE, Ago, 2012, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 178-185.
RAMÍREZ-NAVAS, J.S. Y RODRÍGUEZ DE STOUVENEL, A. Characterization of Colombian Quesillo Cheese by Spectrocolorimetry. VITAE, Ago, 2012, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 178-185.

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VITAE, REVISTA DE LA FACULTAD DE QUÍMICA FARMACÉUTICAISSN 0121-4004 / ISSNe 2145-2660. Volumen 19 número 2, año 2012Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. págs. 178-185
1
Escuela de Ingeniería de Alimentos. Facultad de Ingeniería. Universidad del Valle, Sede Meléndez. Calle 13 No 100-00, Edificio 338, 2ºpiso, Espacio 2023. Cali, Colombia.
*
Corresponding author: juan.sebastian.ramirez@correounivalle.edu.co
CHARACTERIZATION OF COLOMBIAN QUESILLO CHEESEBY SPECTROCOLORIMETRY 
CARACTERIZACIÓN DE QUESILLO COLOMBIANO POR ESPECTROCOLORIMETRÍA 
 Juan S. RAMÍREZ-NAVAS
Ph.D.
2
*
, Aida RODRÍGUEZ DE STOUVENEL 
Ph.D.
1
Received: 12 April 2011 Accepted: 28 August 2012
 ABSTRACT
Rationale:
The colour of food is one of the major attributes which affect a consumer’s perception of itsquality, and it is also a powerful tool for quality control and marketing. The Quesillo cheese is a typicalColombian cheese. The observed colour in Quesillo cheese is a composite of many contributing factors.
Objectives:
The objective of the current work was to characterize the colour of Quesillo cheese using parameters L 
*
, a
*
and b
*
of the CIE (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage) system by spectrocolorimetry.
Methods:
The collection of data with colorimeters was used for the instrumental characterization of colour in Quesillo cheese. Colour parameters L 
*
, a
*
and b
*
were measured in triplicate using CIE-LABspace for fourteen commercial Quesillo cheese and seven manufactured cheeses. Using the mean valuesof colour in the analysed cheeses, parameters of chroma metric (C
*
), hue (H
*
), colour differences (E), whiteness index (WI) and yellowness indix (YI) were determined.
Results:
The general mean valuesobtained were, L 
*
= 78.13, a
*
= -0.96, b
*
= 22.95, C
*
= 22.97 and H
*
= 92.38°. These can be estimated asthe reference values for Quesillo cheese, which could be used in quality control in the manufacturing process. Different factors are discussed that can change or influence the colour in the final product.
Conclusions:
The colour variations of this type of cheese are principally due to the initial compositionof milk, composition of acid whey and manufacturing technology.
Keywords
: Milk, pasta-filata, colombian quesillo cheese, colour, colorimetry.
RESUMEN
 Antecedentes:
El color de los alimentos es uno de los mayores atributos que afecta la percepción de lacalidad por parte de los consumidores y también es una potente herramienta para el control de calidad y mercadeo. El quesillo es un queso típico colombiano. El color que se observa en el quesillo es unacombinación de muchos factores.
Objetivos:
El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar el colordel quesillo utilizando los parámetros L 
*
, a
*
y b
*
del sistema CIE (Comisión Internationale d’Eclairage)mediante espectrocolorimetría.
Métodos:
Los datos del color del quesillo fueron obtenidos con uncolorímetro. Se determinó los parámetros de color L 
*
, a
*
, b
*
por triplicado, utilizando el espacio CIE-LAB,para catorce quesillos comerciales y siete quesillos fabricados para este estudio. Utilizando los valoresmedios del color de los quesos analizados se determinó los parámetros de croma métrico (C
*
), tonalidad(H
*
), diferencia de color (AE), índice de blancura (WI) e índice de amarillo (YI).
Resultados:
Los valoresmedios generales obtenidos fueron: L 
*
= 78,13, a
*
= -0,96, b
*
= 22,95, C
*
=22,97 and H
*
= 92,38. Éstospueden ser estimados como valores de referencia para el quesillo y podría emplearse en control de calidadla fabricación. Se discutelos diversos factores que pueden cambiar o influir en el color del producto final.
Conclusiones:
Las variaciones de color de este queso se deben, principalmente, a la composición inicialde la leche, la composición del suero ácido y la tecnología de fabricación.
Palabras clave
: Leche, pasta-hilada, quesillo colombiano, color, colorimetría.
 
179
INTRODUCTION
Quesillo cheese, Doble Crema cheese, Trenzacheese and Pera Cheese are typical Colombiancheeses that are members of the pasta-filata cheesefamily. It is believed that the technology to producethis cheese was developed by Italian immigrants(1). From Colombia, Quesillo cheese has reachedother Latin American countries, among which are:Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua.Quesillo and Doble Crema cheese have becomethe most popular cheese varieties in Colombiabecause of their functional properties which are of utmost importance for pizza and other foods, likesandwiches, burgers, and others that use them (2).Colombia produces approximately about 23000tons per year of Doble Crema cheese and Quesillo.Quesillo is an acid fresh unripened cheese that canbe classified as semi-soft cheese with a medium tohigh content of fat (1, 3, 4).Quesillo is manufactured from raw whole cow’smilk, which is slightly heat-treated at 50°C for 15– 30 min and thereafter coagulated at 35 – 37°C by using acid whey and rennet as adjuvants (50% of theamount normally used). Acid whey fermented inthe same cheese, making plant to pH 4.5, providing a natural whey culture. Natural whey starters arepreferred as they contribute to the typical flavourand aroma of the final cheese product (5). The curdis placed on tables specially designed for removal of  whey (for 10 min or more if necessary), until thepH reaches about 5.3 suitable enough for stretching.The stretching process is performed in a hot bowl, without water or liquid, at a temperature higherthan 75°C for about 25 min. The cheese curd issalted at the beginning of the stretching process.The physical structure of casein by the action of lactic acid and accelerated by the high temperatureis transformed from dicalcium paracaseinate tomonocalcium caseinate, increasing its elasticity and strength. After stretching, the cheese is moul-ded into 1 – 2.5 kg sample sizes and ventilated, sothat the cheese becomes bright, and cooled at 4°C.Normally, it has a rectangular shape. An important factor to consider is that severalcraft industries, working in the manufacturing process, use a curd stretching step done in a bowlat the end of cheese production whereby the heatof the fire is reduced but the curd is allowed tostretch for a few more minutes to give the cheesemore consistency, making the final colour a moreintense yellow. Also, in some craft industries they leave the moulded cheese on shelves for at least 12hours before being packed and stored in cold rooms(6). Several studies have evaluated the browning incheese and the factors involved, such as temperatureof storage in warm climate, of cooling and heating (7 - 10). This allows understanding the appearanceof a more intense yellow colour in the surface of Quesillo cheese.The aspect of foodstuffs is one of the acceptable ways to appreciate quality and desirable on-salefood products (11). A product will be accepted if ithas an attractive appearance (texture and colour).This parameter is often the primary considerationof consumers when making purchase decisions (12,13). Colour of food is one of the major attributesthat affect the consumer’s perception of quality (14), also is included the flavour, odour, origin,naturalness and ripeness. This makes a potenttool for quality control and marketing. Colour isqualitatively distinguished by the human eye butnot quantified; however, colour can be measuredusing a colorimeter, which has greater sensitivity and higher reproducibility than the human eye. Theinformation obtained from colorimeters correlate well with human perception (15).Colour is an important factor when it comesto consumer choice and selection of cheese. Formost cheeses produced in the world, the quality of milk affects the final product. The observedcolour in Quesillo cheese is a composite of many contributing factors. Several studies on the colourcharacterization of cheeses have shown that colouris closely related to the initial composition of milk,the manufacturing technology and the addition of food additives, among other findings (10, 16 - 19).Table 1 summarizes the information about colourattributes for different cheese varieties.
 
180
Ramírez D
et al
 Attributes of colour are chroma metric or satu-ration (C
*
), and hue (H
*
) (also found as tonality ortone). C
*
represent the radial distance and describesthe extent to which a colour is separated from theneutral gray colour which is closer to a pure spec-trum between vividness and dullness. H
*
is definedby its angular position in a cylindrical colour spaceand corresponds to the dominance of Radiationspecific wavelengths over others (colours: red 0 °,90 ° yellow, 180 green and 270 ° blue).Colour indexes are Whiteness index (WI) and Yellowness index (YI). WI is widely used in thetextile and paper industries, although recently itsuse has been extended to food, drugs, plastic andceramic industries. A WI value of 100 indicates anideal white surface (16). Any differences to these values indicate a deviation from ideal white. YI valueindicates the grade by which the sample surface isdifferent to the ideal white in terms of yellowness.The YI increases when the difference in ideal whiteincreases. However, if these values grow on thepositive scale YI (+) they will indicate a differencein the yellowness. It also indicates a difference inblueness if it decreases on the negative scale YI (-).Colombian cheeses have not been classified ac-cording to their colour, but it could be said that theMolido Nariñese cheese and Quesito Antioqueñohave white colour, Pera cheese and Trenza cheesehave a colour from white to pale-yellow, Costeñocheese and Campesino cheese has a pale-yellow colour surface, Doble Crema cheese and Quesillocheeses are more yellow than the previous ones butnot as much as Paipa cheese (1). Most of the Co-lombian population know and differentiates among each of these cheeses. Although there is no formalranking of the colour of them, the Colombian po-pulation relate the colour with the composition andquality. The Quesillo cheese produced from a low fat milk, less than 3% fat, resulting in much whitercolour than the normal colour of Quesillo chee-se. Consumers consider this product as a dietary cheese, although it is not yet fully accepted by theentire population. Another incidence occurs in thedepartment of Nariño, where Molido Nariñense yellow cheese is considered as stale or old, and it isnot desired (20).The colour variations of Quesillo are due prin-cipally to: the initial milk composition and acid whey used in the production of cheese. The fat andindigenous microflora, the manufacturing techno-logy including the time of stretching, holding timebefore packaging and temperature of storage alsoaffect the final colour of the product.The objective of the current work is to characte-rize the colour of Quesillo cheese using parameters
*
, a
*
and b
*
of the Commission Internationaled’Eclairage (CIE) system.
Table 1.
Colour attributes for different type of cheeses (15).
Cheese L
*
a
*
b
*
C
*
H
*
 WI YI
Brie (interior)90.202.7026.5026.6484.1871.6241.97Camembert (interior)85.003.3026.9027.1083.0169.0245.21Crottin de Chavignol92.40-1.9010.0010.18100.7687.3015.46 Edam79.804.2032.2032.4782.5761.7657.65Feta93.50-1.1011.0011.0595.7187.1816.81Gouda82.603.6027.1027.3482.4367.5946.87Gouda (Egyptian)76.579.9935.0536.457456.6765.39Roncal60.00-4.2513.5014.15107.4757.5732.14Fresh cheese (HPP)79.9-1.258.458.5498.4178.1615.11Molido Nariñense cheese94.16-0.3311.0011.0091.7287.5416.69Processed cheese91318.618.8480.8479.1229.20Semi-hard Cheese80.00-7.5527.5028.52105.3565.1749.11Reggianito73 a 7929 a 3371 a 76Roquefort92.80-1.4014.5014.5795.5183.7522.32Tilsit77.203.1028.8028.9783.8663.1453.29Hunter L 
*
, a
*
and b
*
values for light to dark, red to green, and yellow to blue respectively.Chroma (C
*
), hue (H
*
), Whiteness index (WI) and Yellowness index (YI) were calculated from data collected fromreference.

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