SINGULAR ENGLISH1stPETOI SEEK2ndPETISYOU SEEK3rdPETITHE/SHE/IT SEEKSPLURAL ENGLISH1stPETIMUSWE SEEK2ndPETITISY’ALL SEEK3rdPETUNTTHEY SEEK
In Latin, all verbs belong to one of four families called conjugations. Each conjugation’sendings are slightly dierent from the others’. It is necessary to know a verb’s conjugationwhen you are writing Latin. There are simple ways to identify which conjugation a verb is from This handout will help you with the basics of identifying the conjugation of a verb.
PORTO,PORT A REto carryDICO,DICEREto speak AUDIO, AUDIREto hearHABEO,HABEREto have
FIRST PRINCIPLE PART: This part is the rst person singular of the verb in the present tense “I love”. When looking upan unknown word you should always be looking for this rst part. Notice that often the rst part alone can showyou the conjugation as with habeo and audio. However for porto and dico you must look further into the denition.SECOND PRINCIPLE PART: This part is the innitive “to love”. This part is useful because it will also help you idenifywhich conjugation the verb is from when you look at the vowel before the -re. THIRD PRINCIPLE PART: This part is therst person singular perfect “I have loved”. This part is useful because you use it to make verbs in the perfect, futureperfect, or pluperfect. FOURTH PRINCIPAL PART: This part is a verbal adjective. It is called the Perfect PassiveParticiple. It ends in 'us' and is translated as 'having been...ed'. e.g. amatus having been loved.
1st PRINCIPAL PART2nd PRINCIPAL PART3rd PRINCIPAL PART4th PRINCIPAL PART
Some verbs in the third conjugation have an -io in their rst principal part instead of just an o. Theyalso still have -ere in their innitive form instead of -ire. For now the only real dierences you willneed to know is the 3rd plural ends in -iunt and the imperfect has an -i as well faciebam.
HOW TO FIND IT:
Finding out which conjugation a verb is from is a simple matter of looking at the verbsdenition in the dictionary. Use the chart below to nd out how.
PETO, ERE TO SEEKSINGULAR ENGLISH1stFACIOI MAKE2ndFACISYOU MAKE3rdFACITHE/SHE/IT MAKESPLURAL ENGLISH1stFACIMUSWE MAKE2ndFACITISY’ALL MAKE3rdFACIUNTTHEY MAKE