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HW #3_ 2D Motion and Projectiles Mastering Physics Answers

# HW #3_ 2D Motion and Projectiles Mastering Physics Answers

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This has all the answers to the hints and the mastering physics problem answers. I recommend you use this as a reference because sometimes you can just be inputting the answer wrong.
This has all the answers to the hints and the mastering physics problem answers. I recommend you use this as a reference because sometimes you can just be inputting the answer wrong.

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9/22/13 HW #3: 2D motion and projectilessession.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2523260 1/41
HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles
Due: 11:00pm on Friday, September 20, 2013
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due.Grading Policy
Vector Components--Review
Learning Goal:
To introduce you to vectors and the use of sine and cosine for a triangle when resolving components.Vectors are an important part of the language of science, mathematics, and engineering. They are used to discussmultivariable calculus, electrical circuits with oscillating currents, stress and strain in structures and materials, andflows of atmospheres and fluids, and they have many other applications. Resolving a vector into components is aprecursor to computing things with or about a vector quantity. Because position, velocity, acceleration, force,momentum, and angular momentum are all vector quantities, resolving vectors into components is
the most importanskill
required in a mechanics course.The figure shows the components of , and , alongthe
x
and
axes of the coordinate system, respectively. Thecomponents of a vector depend on the coordinate system'sorientation, the key being the angle between the vector andthe coordinate axes, often designated .
Part A
The figure shows the standard way of measuring theangle. is measured
to
the vector
from
the
x
axis, andcounterclockwise is positive.
Express and in terms of the length of thevector and the angle , with the componentsseparated by a comma.
F
⃗
F
x
F
y
θ   θ   F
x
F
y
Fθ

Typesetting math: 25%

9/22/13 HW #3: 2D motion and projectilessession.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2523260 2/41
Correct
In principle, you can determine the components of
any
vector with these expressions. If lies in one of theother quadrants of the plane, will be an angle larger than 90 degrees (or in radians) and andwill have the appropriate signs and values.Unfortunately this way of representing , though mathematically correct, leads to equations that must besimplified using trig identities such asand.These must be used to reduce all trig functions present in your equations to either or . Unlessyou perform this followup step flawlessly, you will fail to recoginze that,and your equations will not simplify so that you can progress further toward a solution. Therefore, it is best toexpress all components in terms of either or , with between 0 and 90 degrees (or 0 andin radians), and determine the signs of the trig functions by knowing in which quadrant the vector lies.
Part B
When you resolve a vector into components, the components
must have the form
or .The signs depend on which quadrant the vector lies in, and there will be one component with and the other with .In real problems the optimal coordinate system is often rotated so that the
x
axis is not horizontal. Furthermore,most vectors will not lie in the first quadrant. To assign the sine and cosine correctly for vectors at arbitrary angles,you must figure out which angle is and then properly reorient the definitional triangle. As an example, consider the vector shown in the diagram labeled "tilted axes," where you know the anglebetween and the
axis.Which of the various ways of orienting the definitional triangle must be used to resolve into components in thetilted coordinate system shown? (In the figures, the hypotenuse is orange, the side adjacent to is red, and theside opposite is yellow.), =
F
x
F
y
cos
θF
,sin
θF     F
⃗
θπ
/2cos(
θ
)  sin(
θ
)
F
⃗sin(+
ϕ
)=sin(
ϕ
)  180
∘
cos(+
ϕ
)=sin(
ϕ
)  90
∘
sin(
ϕ
)cos(
ϕ
)  sin(+
ϕ
)+cos(−
ϕ
)=0   180
∘
270
∘
sin(
ϕ
)cos(
ϕ
)
ϕπ
/2
F
⃗||cos(
θ
)
F
⃗||sin(
θ
)
F
⃗sin(
θ
)  cos(
θ
)
θ   N
⃗
θ   N
⃗
N
⃗
θ

9/22/13 HW #3: 2D motion and projectilessession.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2523260 3/41
Indicate the number of the figure with the correct orientation.
Hint 1.
Recommended procedure for resolving a vector into components
First figure out the sines and cosines of , then figure out the signs from the quadrant the vector is in andwrite in the signs.
Hint 2.
Finding the trigonometric functions
Sine and cosine are defined according to the following convention, with the key lengths shown in green: Thehypotenuse has unit length, the side adjacent to has length , and the side opposite has length. The colors are chosen to remind you that the vector sum of the two orthogonal sides is the vector whose magnitude is the hypotenuse; red + yellow = orange.
θ   θ
cos(
θ
)  sin(
θ
)