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The Oredigger Issue 4 - September 23, 2013

The Oredigger Issue 4 - September 23, 2013

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Published by The Oredigger
The Oredigger, Volume 94, Issue 4
The Oredigger, Volume 94, Issue 4

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THE OREDIGGER
 Volume 94, Issue 4September 23, 2013
The student voice of the Colorado School of Mines
 w w w . O R E D I G G E R . n e t
Sports 9Opinion 11Features 4News 2
 ASPPRCresearches toimprove steelCook up abatch of chocolate eyesMinds at Mineson hotbeverages.Successfulweekend forsoccer.
Jordan Francis
Staff Writer 
Gorilla Glass is a Corning Scienceand Technology brand of glass thatbends and deforms without breakingunder pressures that cause mostother types of glass to crack orbreak. It is most commonly seen inthe marketplace as a display coverfor many mobile electronic devicessuch as cell phones, laptops, andother display applications. However,this glass does not rely on excep-tional strength to avert scratchesand other failures. As Dr. G. ScotGlaesemann, a Research Fellowat Corning, explained, “The reason[Corning] invented Gorilla Glass wasnot because it was strong. It wasbecause it was damage resistant.”Gorilla Glass is able to do thisbecause the makeup of the materialhas been altered in such a way thatwhen a force acts upon the surface,the surface of the glass goes intocompression while the center of thematerial enters a state of tension. This allows the material to behavemore like a silica material and den-sify under stress instead of crackingor failing the way glass traditionallydoes. This combination of compres-sion and tension creates a squeezingaction when a force is applied. Thisaction essentially squeezes cracksand scratches, preventing them frombecoming a problem. To demonstrate this, Glaesemannhad a student attempt to crack asample of soda-lime glass and GorillaGlass. The student caused a fracturein the soda-lime glass with relativeease, but even with his full armstrength concentrated on a singlepoint, he was unable to do more thanbend the Gorilla Glass. According toGlaesemann, he has seen peoplebreak the skin on their hands in theseattempts without fracturing the glass. As Glaesemann explained, alarge part of the process of invent-ing Gorilla Glass involved studyingthe why and how of failure points of other glass products on the market. They found that most of the exist-ing flaws that allowed for cracks
and scratches were surface aws,
though there were some volume
aws in the samples as well. They
also found that the prevalence of 
aws in a sample of glass was par
-tially dependant on who had handledthe material most recently and howthey had done so.Corning researchers discoveredthat the best ways to improve glassstrength is to reduce mechanicalstresses at the crack tips. Whenthey realized that, for a lot of glasses,cracks form during unloading muchmore so than loading, they realizedthat a material which could densify inreaction to force would be highly use-ful, and thus Gorilla Glass was born.When asked what it was that al-lowed the Corning team to come upwith such an effective innovation soquickly, Glaesemann cited the abilityto throw off traditional methods of invention that the company likes touse and the chance to instead blazea new trail. “We actually have people[in the company] who do innovation,”Glaesemann said, “We didn’t inviteany of them.”
Corning on glass
CSM club rugby defeats Red Rocks Community College September 20 by a score of 6--3. For more Orediggers sports cover-age, see page 9.
MICHAEL RODGERS / OREDIGGER
Dr. Martha Mecarthney of Uni-versity of California Irvine shared herteam’s most recent project, whichinvolved the investigation of monaziteceramics and their potential applica-tions.Ceramics are a widely used mate-rial due to their insulating propertiesand their relative durability. Apartfrom the familiar cup-of-‘Joe’ variety,ceramics have been developed towithstand extreme temperaturesand stress. These types of materialare often used in industry due to thewide range of uses they possess.Researchers from the Universityof California explored the potentialof a new ceramic made of monazite.Monazite is a term used to describea phosphate based mineral that iscombined with a rare earth metal. The term Monazite comes fromthe Greek ‘mono’, or to be alone,possibly referring to its rarity in thenatural world. The particular variationof monazite that Dr. Mecarthney andher team are working on is lanthanumphosphate.Lanthanum phosphate follows astrange bonding pattern that gives itits unique properties. The lanthanumsites are each connected to nine dif-ferent oxygen molecules, with eachbond containing a different bondlength. This structure allows themolecule to accommodate a wideselection of elements. Also, lantha-
James Davis
Staff Writer 
Ceramics appliedto nuclear energy
num phosphate has the extraordi-nary ability to recover from radiationdamage by a self-healing techniqueat relatively low temperatures. Whenfound in nature, the mineral is highlyirradiated yet still remains in a solidstate with a strong, crystalline struc-ture. At extremely high temperatures,the mineral becomes less solubleand has major plasticity. Due to itsstructure and prized qualities, lan-thanum phosphate is a perfect can-didate for Dr. Mecarthney’s research.Nuclear energy, being the focusof Dr. Mecarthney’s lecture, provideslarge quantities of energy, but gener-
ates a signicant amount of heat. The
extreme temperatures cause the ma-trix holding the fuel to become brittle,thus limiting operations and energyoutput. Dr. Mecarthney and her teamsuggested that a ceramic made of lanthanum phosphate would be asuitable replacement to the currentmatrices. Lanthanum phosphate isheat resistant up to 1000 Kelvin, astandard resistance for most tem-peratures. Past that, however, themineral increases in plasticity. The
more uid-like state of the matricesprevents signicant structural dam
-age. After the reaction in the reactor,the matrices have a long time of rela-tive low temperature to cool. Duringthis time, the lanthanum phosphateceramic begins to repair the nucleardamage to its structure. Accordingto Dr. Mecarthney, this can improvethe overall process of generatingnuclear energy.
COURTESY JULIUS SCHORZMAN
 
n e w s
september 23, 2013page 2
 w w w . O R E D I G G E R . n e t
Oredigger Staff 
Deborah Good
Editor-in-Chief 
Emily McNair 
Managing Editor 
Taylor Polodna
Design Edito
Connor McDonald
Webmaster 
Lucy Orsi
Business Manager 
Arnaud Filliat
Copy Editor 
Katerina Gonzales
Content Manager 
Jared Riemer 
Content Manager 
Karen Gilbert
Faculty Advisor 
Headlines from around the world
Local News
Patrick Schumacher of Colo-rado Springs planned to ride hishorse to Bryce, Utah to get tohis brother’s wedding. He wasaccused of riding under the in-
uence of alcohol and animal
cruelty when he rode throughBoulder on September 9. Afterhitching a ride from Grand Junc-tion to Bryce, he made it to thewedding on Friday.On Friday night, a man in Col-orado Springs died of a gunshotwound. Authorities conductedinterviews and collected evi-dence on Saturday. The victim’sname has not been released. This could be the 25th homicidein the city this year. Authorities arrested BurtonCarpenter, a school bus driverin Brighton, for suspicion of driv-
ing under the inuence, reckless
endangerment, child abuse pos-ing threat to a child, and care-less driving on Saturday. Car-penter drove a bus from Prairie View High School in Brighton toMountain Range High Schooland sideswiped a vehicle in theparking lot.Police have arrested a sus-pect in the Friday night shoot-ing at the Boys and Girls Clubat 33rd Avenue and Holly Street. The victim is in critical conditionat Denver Health Medical Cen-ter. A moose ran through a sub-urban neighborhood in Broom-
eld early Friday morning. Policeofcers tried to use patrol cars to
herd the animal out of the neigh-borhood. The animal eventuallyran to Ruth Roberts Park. The Jefferson County Sher-
iff’s Ofce has a 6-foot velocirap
-tor statue in its evidence vault.
 They are trying to nd its owner.
 Anyone with information shouldcontact them at 303-277-0211.
Ramiro Rodriguez
, Staff Writer 
Jessica Deters
, Staff Writer 
Duke University, Durham,NC -
Every winter as the coldseason rolls in, doctors strug-gle to distinguish viral infec-tions from bacterial infections.Often times patients receiveantibiotics to combat theircolds, even if the type of infec-tion is uncertain. Duke Univer-sity researchers are working todevelop a blood test to betterdiagnose respiratory illnessesas either viral or bacterial. Inturn, the new test will hopefullyreduce the dangerous overuseof antibiotics and aid doctors inmaking a speedy and accuratediagnosis.
Sea of Okhotsk, Russia -
An 8.3magnitude earthquake that struck off the coast of Russia has seismologistsreeling, struggling to understand howit happened. Thorne Lay, profes-sor of Earth and planetary sciencesat the University of California SantaCruz, explained the conundrum, “It’sa mystery how these earthquakeshappen. How can rock slide againstrock so fast while squeezed by the
pressure from 610 kilometers of 
overlying rock?” Though deep earth-quakes such as this one are usuallynot harmful, scientists will continue topuzzle toward an explanation.
East Anglia, United Kingdom -
 Talk of global warming and climate changeoften raises concerns as to how much longer the earth will remain habitable forhumans. Recent discoveries by astrobiologists at the University of East Angliacan help ease some of these concerns--at least for the next billion years. The research team, led by Andrew Rushby, discovered that the earth is ex-pected to be habitable for at least another 1.75 billion years. “After this point,”Rushby said, “Earth will be in the ‘hot zone’ of the sun, with temperatures sohigh, the seas will evaporate. We would see a catastrophic and terminal extinc-tion event for all life.” Although the earth may be in the habitable zone for at least another 1.75billion years, humans may not survive that long. “Humans would be in troublewith even a small increase in temperature, and near the end only microbes inniche environments would be able to endure the heat,” Rushby said. According to Rushby, knowing the amount of habitable time on a planet al-lows for the investigation of other planets as potential hosts for life. “If we everneeded to move to another planet, Mars is probably our best bet,” Rushbysaid. “It’s very close and will remain in the habitable zone until the end of theSun’s lifetime; six billion years from now.”Last Monday, a
lone gunman
,Navy contractor Aaron Alexis, fa-tally wounded twelve people andinjured three others before beingkilled by police at the WashingtonNavy Yard. According to FBI Di-rector James Comey, the shootermoved without any “discernablepattern” and that “It appears to[Comey] that he was wanderingthe halls and hunting people toshoot”. The ongoing investigationhas yet to determine a motive. To protest the revelation thatthe United States has been spyingon the nation of Brazil’s presidentand her aides, a
Brazilian com-puter hacking group
attemptedto deface the National Security Agency’s webpage. Unfortunatelyfor the group, because of a confu-sion over the acronym, the groupinstead placed the message “Stopspying on us” and a message call-ing for the United States to not at-tack Syria on NASA’s web page. According to NASA spokesperson Allard Beutel “At no point were anyof the agency’s primary websites,
missions or classied systems
compromised.” The fatal stabbing of PavlosFyssas, a leading
anti-fascistrapper
,
 
at an ultra-nationalist rallyin Athens was found to be linkedto the Golden Dawn political party. After that, an emergency legisla-tion session has been called bythe Greek government to attemptto ban the party. The alleged per-petrator of the attack and his wife,who were captured by police,confessed to membership in theGolden Dawn. Party leadership isdenying involvement in the assas-sination. Last week, government
ofcials began raiding GoldenDawn ofces.
 A pair of forty-year-old unsolveddisappearances were solved af-ter
two vintage cars with skel-etons inside
were found beneaththe mud of Foss Lake in Oklaho-ma. The two vehicles were foundby chance when a group of high-
way patrol ofcers decided to try
out new sonar equipment at thelake, and were taken by surpriseto see the two rust covered Chev-rolets in the lake. The bodies were
identied as belonging to personsreported missing in 1969 and
1970. The city of 
San Francisco issuing the state of Nevada
overalleged bussing of improperly dis-charged mental health pacientsinto California. A three month in-vestigation found that 24 of the500 people in question had beensent to San Francisco withoutany prior connectonto the city. Ne-
vada ofcials
deny thecharges and claim that out of 1500reviewed cases of patients beingtransported across state lines,only ten had been improperly dis-charged. The 4th U.S. Circuit Court of  Appeals in Richmond has ruledthat
clicking “Like” on Face-book
can be considered protect-ed free speech. This is a reversalof a lower court ruling that stated
that this was insufcient to be con
-sidered speech. The case in ques-
tion that caused this was the ring
of six people by Sheriff B.J. Rob-erts in Hampton, Virginia. The sixpeople had “Liked” the Facebook page of Roberts’ opponent for re-election, Jim Adams. They suedon the basis that public employ-
ees cannot be red for expressing
political opinions which the lowercourt did not believe that a “Like”was protected speech.
 
n e w s
september 23, 2013page
 w w w . O R E D I G G E R . n e t
John Bristow
Staff Writer 
 After a week full of rain and
ooding, it was entirely tting tohave a Van Tuyl over the chal
-
lenges of designing storm-watercontrol measures. The talk wasgiven by Holly Piza, who is a se
-
nior project engineer for the Ur
-
ban Drainage and Flood ControlDistrict on the Front Range. Whilethere was some anticipation of discussion over the recent delugeof water that assaulted the FrontRange, Piza was frank with the au
-
dience, “I guess it is a great time totalk about rainfall and ooding, butthat’s not what I planned.” Luckilyfor the audience, there was muchmore at stake than large oods inthe design for storm-water controlmeasures.In the Denver region, the annualprecipitation comes to around 15inches of rain. Depending uponwhere that rain falls, it may nd itsway into the ground where it canbe used, or it may turn to runoff.Storm-water control measuresare designed to best minimize theamount of runoff from a given sys
-
tem so that the water can be usedeffectively. “We want to reduce theamount of runoff from a site,” re
-
vealed Piza, “we can do this by de
-
taining and slowly releasing storm-water.” According to Piza, one of the primary challenges to this ex
-
tent is establishing a set of bestmanagement practices, or BMPs,that is suitable for the region, sinceevery region is unique in what chal
-
lenges are present.Since it is impractical to use anyrandom site, one of the rst phas
-
es in establishing BMPs is site se
-
lection. Piza walked the audiencethrough several different sites,discussing both their strengthsand weaknesses for determiningBMPs. The rst that was broughtup was the the Denver WastewaterManagement Building alongsideI-25. Different pavers were used inthe entryway design so that theireffectiveness could be tested.“Unfortunately,” said Piza, “theonly problem is that the referencesite is ‘too clean’ of a site.” On theip side, a site can be undesirablefor being too dirty. Piza regaled theaudience with one of the sites thathad been chosen, “we monitor asand lter at a city maintenanceyard, it is a dirty site [...] it clogsalmost every time it rains.” Another major design consid
-
eration that was hit upon was theidea that all aspects of the sitemust be documented. Since anynon-rain water can be disastrousto model building, it is crucial tond out what drains into storm-water management sites. Piza alsohit upon the need to establish asite that can be free from degra
-
dation, “we try to hide things asmuch as we can, but they usuallyget damaged.”While having a good design andbackground is a good rst step,Piza also noted that it is importantto actually get out and observe thesites from time to time. At one sitein particular, the automatic sam
-
pler was picking up strange ow.“We had a guy with a sprinkler,”revealed Piza, “you don’t want tosample water that isn’t rain.” An
-
other factor that can cause issuesis wind. Most rain gauges are onthe ground, but in cities it can betempting to put them on buildingswhere they will not be vandalized.Before launching into actual de
-
sign specications, Piza reinforcedone of the critical ideas, “The big
-
gest challenge,” she said, “is get
-
ting accurate measurements inthe eld.” This thought has guideddesign considerations and ap
-
proaches in the eld. Since thereis a strong relationship betweenamount of rain, and calculatedvolume, Piza revealed that she
Controlling where the storm-water goes
can use models to work throughwhether or not a design is workingcorrectly. For the basic storm-wa
-
ter control measure experiments, V-notch weirs are used to drainslowly over time in a way that canbe measured. In one case, a sitewas working bad, though the rea
-
son was not apparent in the data. A site visit revealed that the owin the measurement device wasnot quiescent. Piza and her teammodied the collection device tobe more tranquil, “now it is muchbetter.” Another example of a baddesign was brought up by Piza. Ina case of a permeable pavementsite, the sampling tube was left inthe wrong location for a decade. This coupled with an image of thesite inundated with sediment wasused to hone in on the idea thatwas repeated by Piza, “you reallyhave to spend a lot of time at thesite.”In cases where storm-watercontrol methods are implementedcorrectly, there are still necessarylimitations and considerations.Piza used the example of the newgreen roof at the Denver BotanicGardens. In the 2011 season, therehad been 17 rain events. Whilemost of these rain events were reli
-
able, how big an event is can havean effect on how accurate the datacan be. “We need to pull a sampleat least four times,” said Piza, ontop of that “we want them evenlyspaced through the hydrograph.”In small events it can be difcultto get the minimum four samplesand in large events, the samplingevents may not be as spaced outas they should be. Several differentexamples of hydrographs were putup by Piza to emphasize the point.One of the duties of Piza andher group has been to establish avolume of best management prac
-
tices. Since the Front Range hy
-
drological area has its own uniquechallenges, this volume doesn’tnecessarily reect what is in nor
-
mal manufacturing specications. A major issue in the area is the be
-
havioral differences between whatpervious pavements and asphaltsshould do and what they do in theeld. To combat this Piza’s teamworked to come up with a newconcrete mix and a new design.Instead of pervious concrete, thenew method involves cutting deepcuts into the concrete so it be
-
comes slotted. For the trials it in
-
tercepted the water, unfortunatelyPiza admitted, there is no way toknow how it will hold up. Another area where the Colo
-
rado standards are diverging is inbioretention media. Piza elabo
-
rated that there are “thousandsof magical mixes,” unfortunatelymost areas use peat, which is notsustainable or local for the Colo
-
rado area. Instead of peat Pizarevealed that her team is in theprocess of spreading a mix thatfocuses on using recycled shred
-
ded paper and sand. Since itslows down inltration temporar
-
ily and keeps undesired nutrientsout, it should be ideal. Unfortu
-
nately, the eureka moment didnot transition well from the draw
-
ing board to the eld. Piza’s planwas set back since recycled pa
-
per is hard to come across, mostdocument destruction companieshave agreements that the paperwill be pulped. Luckily there wasa way around that by means of old phonebooks. With the phone
-
books, sand, and a mechanizedprocess, the mixture was able tocome together correctly.Piza nished off the presenta
-
tion with one case study, or asshe put it, “the most exciting one,it is what is going on.” Her grouphas been working with the DenverGreen School to come up with alarger scale storm-water controlmeasure. The main focus of theproject is a large cistern whichcaptures water for use on the site.Piza’s group also uses this cisternto get an idea of the storm-watersthat come. “Typically when raincomes and you need to capture it,the cistern will already be full,” Pizaexplained, “what is special here isthat the cistern will purge itself tocollect more rain.” The system is important inthat it could be used to create anew set of BMPs in communitieswhere there are combined sewersystems. If water can be purged,it will alleviate ooding in thosescenarios. Since many urban ar
-
eas in the Eastern United Stateshave combined sewer systems, itis a solution that is much needed.When asked about what hap
-
pened to purged water, Piza let outthe best part of the design. “Wecan set up other BMPs in series,”she explained excitedly, “then wecan have a rain guard downstreamwith a smaller footprint.” By put
-
ting some of these systems in onewhole network, more water can beretained for future use. The DenverGreen School system is also sig
-
nicantly more high tech than oth
-
er similar systems. The cistern islinked to a NOAA weather forecastwhich allows it to purge if it calls forrain. The site is also linked up by ahotspot to Piza’s ofce so she canmonitor what is going on. To hithome the strength of the BMP asa whole, Piza put up a screenshotof the dashboard from the rainyweek to show just how accurate itcould be. As was revealed in thequestions portion, the system isexpensive, but within the past twoyears it has worked nearly perfect
-
ly, with the only issues coming thisyear with the rain. To highlight theeffectiveness of the cistern, Pizarevealed that in the prior year, theschool did not have to use waterfrom Denver Water for the purposeof the cistern and this year the sys
-
tem was used even more.
Hannah Rossi
Staff Writer 
 ASPPRC developing next generation steel
Steel is everywhere, and Minesresearchers in the Advanced SteelProcessing and Products Re
-
search Center (ASPPRC ) are onlyworking to make that steel better. ASPPRC is an industry and univer
-
sity cooperative research programon campus in the metallurgicaland materials department in HillHall. Dr. John G. Speer is head of the research group in addition tobeing a professor. “There is a lotgoing on; it’s an exciting area,”said Speer. ASPPRC works as a bridgebetween numerous companiesthat utilize steel and other materi
-
als in various industries (automo
-
biles, petroleum piping, etc.) andthe research of Mines graduatestudents. Fourth year graduatestudent, Lee Rothleutner, is thestudent representative to the In
-
dustrial Advisory Board for ASP
-
PRC. Rothleutner is currently inthe PhD program in addition to hisduties as student representative.Caryn Homsher, also a fourthyear graduate student, comment
-
ed about the work done with theresearch center, “I’m looking at re
-
crystallization at high temperature.It’s ultimately helping the manu
-
facturers know how to processthe steel to get the materials theywant.”“We have roughly 30 consor
-
tium projects going on,” addedSpeer when asked about theCenter, “In addition to those spon
-
sored by the National ScienceFoundation and the U.S. Depart
-
ment of Energy.”In today’s market, the diversityand necessity of steel in a widevariety of industries fuels the part
-
nership between universities andcorporations. ASPPRC takes ona variety of global industries whendoing research. Major sponsors of  ASPPRC include steel producersand key users such as automobilemanufacturers, Chevron, and oth
-
ers. The 30 sponsors pay for re
-
search and education of graduatestudents while proposing researchprojects for ASPPRC at steeringmeetings. “We identify projectsthat meet the educational and in
-
terest needs of students as well asthe research needs of the sponsorcompanies,” Speer explained.Graduate students get valuableexperience while contributing tonumerous industry requirements. The vast range of ASPPRC re
-
search is only made more diverseby the international status of sev
-
eral companies. The sponsors come to a threeday bi-annual review meeting tosee the presentations that stu
-
dents put together. On the thirdday of the meeting, the faculty,sponsors and student representa
-
tive meet to discuss the upcomingprojects. In addition to organizingmeetings and collaborating withthe students, Rothleutner facili
-
tates the students’ progress re
-
ports for the sponsors. The 28 graduate and six under
-
graduate students that work in theresearch center use three typesof steel: bar and forged, sheetand coated, plate and hot rolled.While collaborating with peers andprofessors involved with the cen
-
ter, students are matched up bythe faculty with proposals fromcompanies and the ASPPRC fac
-
ulty. Collectively, the three typesof steel and other materials re
-
searched by ASPPRC account foran abundance of products in themarket and are essential to engi
-
neering in most professions, notto mention everyday life. “I like toask my students to look aroundand notice the applications wheresteel is all around you,” continuedSpeer, “What would you do with
-
out it?”Rothleutner describes his re
-
search as a continuation of hismaster’s degree, as he had the op
-
portunity to work with the specicfatigue of bar steel when workingon his masters. He focused onforged steel, specically on crank shafts, and worked to increase thewear resistance from precipitationusing specic types of hardeningin the post-processing. “The spon
-
sors place their trust in the facultyto match up the student with anappropriate project that meetsboth their academic and their per
-
sonal goals,” said Rothleutner.Homsher earned her masterof science degree in metallurgi
-
cal and materials engineeringfrom Mines in May and is currentlyworking on her PhD. In the past,Homsher measured recrystalliza
-
tion of metals at high tempera
-
tures. She analyzes trends andne-tunes models frequently usedby the sponsors. More recently,her research is in measuring criti
-
cal high temperature transitions insteel plates and recrystallizationat high temperatures. This is ac
-
complished using a Gleeble 3500,which is a thermo-mechanicalprocessing machine. It uses resis
-
tive heating (electrons) to raise thetemperature. Capable of heatingup materials at a rate of 10,000degrees per second, the Gleeble3500 offers a plethora of simu
-
lation options including meltingsteel, and doing casting simulationas well as simulating various de
-
formation modes.Homsher describes it as be
-
ing a ‘jack-of-all-trades machine.’However, there have been issueswith the operation of the Gleeble3500 in the past. “It’s somewhatnicky. It can do a lot, but you haveto know how to make it work,” saidHomsher, referring to the Gleeble3500 as “having a personality of her own.”Homsher can also use the ma
-
chine to test compression andtorsion in super-heated steel. Stu
-
dents pull and push steel to mea
-
sure the torsion in a specic metal. These stress tests are also para
-
mount for the corporate spon
-
sors when assembling devices.“Torsion is a unique characteristicbecause you can get a lot moredeformation without anything re
-
ally failing.”Homsher’s abstract addressesproving or validating equationsin literature used by metallurgi
-
cal and material engineers every
-
where. These equations are usedto calculate recrystallization tem
-
perature in various metals. In Oc
-
tober, Homsher plans on attendingthe material science and technol
-
ogy conference in Montreal whereshe will be published.Homsher was originally a me
-
chanical engineer. “It’s been inter
-
esting to get in depth with a dif 
-
ferent degree. There are overlaps,but denitely some new insights,”she said. And those new insightswill denitely be valuable. Speeradded, “We’re working to developthe next generation of steel.”

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