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Carnap, Rudolf - Reply to Nelson Goodman

Carnap, Rudolf - Reply to Nelson Goodman

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Reply to Nelson Goodman
Rudolf Carnap
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research
, Vol. 8, No. 3. (Mar., 1948), pp. 461-462.
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research
is currently published by International Phenomenological Society.Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtainedprior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content inthe JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/journals/ips.html.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is an independent not-for-profit organization dedicated to and preserving a digital archive of scholarly journals. Formore information regarding JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.http://www.jstor.orgSat May 12 00:59:11 2007
 
DISCUSSION 
REPLY
TO NELSON GOODMAN In my earlier paper1
I
have indicated some requirements which
I
believemust be fulfilled in any application of a system of inductive logic to a givenknowledge situation in order to lead to adequate results. In his discussion*Goodman regards these requirements as quite unacceptable; in particularhe regards the simplicity of properties as meaningful only with respect toa sphere of reference.
I
must confess that
I
too have a rather uneasy feel-ing concerning the concepts of absolute simplicity and absolute complete-ness referred to in the requirements.
I
hope very much that it will bepossible to find a way of avoiding these problematic concepts and replacingthem by the kind of relative concepts with which we usually work. But
at
the present moment
I
do not see whether or how this can be done.
Al-
though those absolute concepts involve problems and difficulties,
I
do notthink that they are meaningless. The question: "Are all properties ofindividuals in a given universe expressible in a certain language?" is for-mulated in what
I,
at an earlier time: called the material mode of speech.After the appearance of the semantical method it became clear that ques-tions of this kind can be formulated and dealt with in an exact way. Weshould certainly always look out for the dangers involved
in
the materialmode, also in the present case; but it is not necessary to prohibit this modecompletely.
I
regard
it
as the task of deductive logic to supply not only positive butalso negative ansnTers o questions of logical truth and logical implication(e.g.,
"52
is
not
implied by
S,").
It is with respect to these negative resultsthat the requirement of simplicity becomes relevant, as explained in mypaper.
I
feel, as Goodman does, that questions concerning the intuitive adequacyof any proposed system of inductive logic are of greatest importance, and
I
shall discuss in my book questions of this kind
in
detail nith respect toother systems and to my o~m.Of course, this examination may centerupon many different points.
I
have found that an examination of the sub-sequent two points, which are closely related, seems especially fruitful,because most methods proposed make it easily possible to calculate valuesfor at least one of the two cases and me have often a fairly clear intuitive
"On the Application of Inductive Logic," Vol. VIII, So. 1, pp. 133-148.
*
"On Infirmities of Confirmation Theory," Vol. VIII, So. 1, pp. 149-151.
Logical Syntax
of
Language,
1937, Ch.
V.
46
1

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