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HP Unix-Rafiq U R Rahman

HP Unix-Rafiq U R Rahman

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Published by: ngbalaji6228 on Jul 03, 2009
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PART - IFundamentals of the UNIXSystems
Chapter 1. Getting started with UNIX
1.1 UNIX Shells
The core of the UNIX operating system is the
. It can be thought of as apiece of software that handles all the communications between user softwareand computer hardware. It is the kernel that decides how to communicate withperipheral devices, how to share time among users of the system, how toallocate memory for different programs running, and how to utilize the processorand other resources. The kernel keeps records of all programs (commonly calledprocesses) running on the system and shares time among these processesaccording to a well-defined policy.Users of the UNIX system don't have a direct interaction with the kernel. Instead,the user always works with a program called the UNIX shell. A shell can beconsidered a command interpreter. The shell takes user commands, interpretsthem, and takes the necessary action to execute them. It also provides the outputof these commands to the user.
1.2 Logging In and Out of HP-UX
All HP-UX users are assigned a user name or login name and a password toaccess the system. Each user name is unique. When users want to start usingthe system, they enter the user name and password assigned to them. Theprocess of entering this information is called the
login process.
Similarly to end auser session, the user issues a command (
), and this process is called the
logout process.
The login and logout processes are necessary for systemsecurity so that only those authorized can use the system.
The Superuser
There is a special user in the UNIX systems called
. This user is createdduring the installation process of HP-UX. The
user has privileges to do all
system administration tasks, such as adding and deleting users, administration ofprinters, and other routine system maintenance tasks. Usually, the systemsadministrator uses the
user name. It is a common practice to call the
 user the
to show the power associated with the name.Each user in the UNIX system has a unique number associated with the username, called a
. The
user has ID 0; therefore, any user with that IDhas superuser privileges.
Logging In
When logging in, you'll see a login prompt on your terminal screen similar to theone shown inFigure 1-1.
Figure 1-1. HP-UX login prompt.
This prompt shows that the system is waiting for a user to enter a login name andpassword. At the login prompt, the user should enter the login name. The systemthen prompts for the password assigned to the login name. The user then entersthe password. If the login name and the password match one of the users on thesystem, the user is allowed to log into the system. If the login name andpassword do not match an existing user, then access to the system is denied andthe error message,
Login incorrect
, is displayed.Figure 1-2shows an exampleof a complete login session where a user named
logs into HP-UX.

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