Chapter 1. Getting started with UNIX
1.1 UNIX Shells
The core of the UNIX operating system is the
. It can be thought of as apiece of software that handles all the communications between user softwareand computer hardware. It is the kernel that decides how to communicate withperipheral devices, how to share time among users of the system, how toallocate memory for different programs running, and how to utilize the processorand other resources. The kernel keeps records of all programs (commonly calledprocesses) running on the system and shares time among these processesaccording to a well-defined policy.Users of the UNIX system don't have a direct interaction with the kernel. Instead,the user always works with a program called the UNIX shell. A shell can beconsidered a command interpreter. The shell takes user commands, interpretsthem, and takes the necessary action to execute them. It also provides the outputof these commands to the user.
1.2 Logging In and Out of HP-UX
All HP-UX users are assigned a user name or login name and a password toaccess the system. Each user name is unique. When users want to start usingthe system, they enter the user name and password assigned to them. Theprocess of entering this information is called the
Similarly to end auser session, the user issues a command (
), and this process is called the
The login and logout processes are necessary for systemsecurity so that only those authorized can use the system.
There is a special user in the UNIX systems called
. This user is createdduring the installation process of HP-UX. The
user has privileges to do all