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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Published by SudharsananPRS
hydrologicla modelling
hydrologicla modelling

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Published by: SudharsananPRS on Sep 25, 2013
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• Hydrologic Modeling • 1
Hydrologic Modeling
Systematic data storage of geospatial and time series in the ArcGIS Hydro datamodel allows different levels of integration. Different levels of integration that canbe achieved within the ArcGIS Hydro data model are explained in this chapter with examples. This chapter includes
Role of the ArcGIS Hydro data model in the context of Hydrologic Modeling
Basics for integration of hydrologic models with ArcGIS Hydro data model
Levels of integration
Description for each type of integration
Water Resource models perform one kind of function for one kind of environment, for example,hydrologic modeling of watershed, hydraulic modeling of rivers, water quality modeling of lakes and so on. Since the ArcGIS Hydro data model, referred to as Arc Hydro hereafter,describes all of these features, one final goal of the Arc Hydro is to provide a mechanism for integrating hydrologic models with a common base of geospatial and temporal data. In manyareas of scientific and engineering research, there is a fundamental need to integrate GISsoftware with users' own models and programs. GIS provides numerous tools to supporthydrologic modeling. They can be broadly classified as data management (manipulation, preparation, extraction, etc.), visualization, and interface development tools. These tools can beused two-ways, that is, GIS can provide its services to hydrologic models, but also, hydrologicmodels can provide their services to GIS. Difficulty arises from the different types of hydrologicmodels, methods for data input, user interface, and communication of the hydrologic modelswith the GIS and also within themselves to perform different hydrologic analysis (Pinde Fu. etal, 2000). These difficulties very often lead to inconveniences and inefficiency defeating thewhole purpose of integration of GIS with hydrologic models. Keeping the above facts in mind, itis really difficult to define a procedure or to have a tool in the Arc Hydro that can be used to rundifferent types of hydrologic models.
Role of the Arc Hydro in the context of Hydrologic Modeling
Hydrologic models try to simulate the watershed behavior by solving the equations that governthe physical processes occurring within the watershed. Therefore hydrologic models are usuallyused to simulate the watershed response for a given input. The hydrologic models take timeseries data and produce another time series as output. For example, time series of rainfall data isused in rainfall – runoff models to predict the discharge at the watershed outlet. On the other hand Arc Hydro describes the hydrologic features that are available in a watershed on a spatialscale and also provides a link between these features by establishing a relationship between
2 • ArcGIS Hydro Data Model
different features. Thus Arc Hydro and hydrologic model represent two different aspects namelydescription and prediction respectively and it is difficult to have these two functionalities in oneenvironment.“Traditionally GIS has been used as a support tool for hydrologic modeling. Many GIScapabilities can be used at different stages of development of a hydrologic application. Thesecapabilities can be broadly classified as:
Data management - In this role, GIS is used for basic spatial data management tasks (datastorage, manipulation, preparation, extraction, etc.) and spatial data processing (overlays, buffering, etc.).
Parameter Extraction - Obtaining characteristic properties of catchments and river reachesfor hydrologic modeling.
Visualization - GIS graphical capabilities are used to display the data either before thehydrologic analysis is performed to verify the basic information, or after the analysis toevaluate the results”(Djokic et al, 1995). For example, flood plain mapping shows the extentof area damaged by floods and is very easy with GIS to visualize.
Surface Modeling - This involves delineation of watersheds and channel shaperepresentation.
Interface Development - Hydrologic models often have antiquated user interfaces that can bereplaced by user friendly interfaces developed using GIS tools.Although GIS performs all the above capabilities, it is not configured for complete interactionwith complex hydrologic models. These models often come with their own visualization (or,more frequently, no visualization). Data import / export from hydrologic models is difficult and hydrologists very often end up with a dilemma of using a “Human Interface” rather than using aGIS interface.The systematic data storage in the Arc Hydro offers different ways of using GIS data for hydrologic modeling. The time series data in Arc Hydro is unique for each layer and featuretype. All the data in the Arc Hydro is stored in a geodatabase, which is basically a MS Accesstable. With the evolution of object oriented programming languages such as Visual Basic it has become very easy to exchange data between the geodatabase and other applications such asspreadsheets, ASCII formats etc. The time series data in Arc Hydro provides an easy and secureway of data exchange between GIS and hydrologic models. The time series data can be used torun any type of hydrologic models provided the level of integration between the hydrologicmodel and the GIS is known.
Basics for Integration of hydrologic models with Arc Hydro
COM and ArcGIS
“The Component Object Model (COM) is a software architecture developed by Microsoft thatallows applications to be built from separate software components. COM is the underlyingarchitecture that forms the foundation for higher-level software services, like those provided byobject linking and embedding (OLE). OLE services span various aspects of commonly needed system functionality, including compound documents, custom controls, inter applicationscripting, data transfer, and other software interactions” (Microsoft Technologies). COM enables
• Hydrologic Modeling • 3
 programmers to develop objects that can be accessed by any COM-compliant application. BothOLE and ActiveX are based on COM. Components developed using Microsoft’s COM providea way by which two objects in different object spaces or networks, could talk together by callingeach other’s methods. This excellent technology forces the operating system to see applicationsas objects. COM forces the operating system to act as a central registry for objects. Theoperating system takes the responsibility of creating objects when they are required, deletingthem when they are not, and handling communications between them, be it in the same or different processes or machines.ArcObjects is the development platform for the ArcGIS family of applications such as ArcMap,ArcCatalog, and ArcScene. The ArcObjects software components expose the full range of functionality available in ArcInfo and ArcView to software developers. ArcObjects is aframework that lets one to create domain-specific components from other components. TheArcObjects components collaborate to serve every data management and map presentationfunction common to most GIS applications. Thus ArcObjects provides an infrastructure for application customization to meet users specific needs (ESRI, 2001).ArcObjects is built using Microsoft’s COM technology. Therefore, it is possible to extend ArcObjects by writing COM components using any COM-compliant development language.One can extend every part of the ArcObjects architecture in exactly the same way as ESRIdevelopers do. The most common way that developers can customize the ArcGIS Desktopapplications is through Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is embedded withinArcCatalog and ArcMap. Through VBA, one can control the application framework that alreadyexists in ArcMap and ArcCatalog for general data management and map presentation tasks and extend ArcGIS with user’s own custom commands, tools, menus, and modules. Thus using VBAinside ArcGIS Desktop, user can achieve the majority of his/her customization needs withrelatively little development effort (ESRI, 2001).
Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)
Visual Basic for Applications is very similar to the stand-alone Visual Basic (VB) programminglanguage. VBA is built from the same source code base as VB providing with a high level of compatibility between the two. VBA also uses the same high-performance language engine and  programmer productivity tools enjoyed by millions of Visual Basic developers. VB is a stand-alone programming language whereas VBA is designed to work with a particular application.Thus VBA is different for different applications.VBA is the macro language for all of Microsoft's major applications. It is the premier development technology for rapidly customizing applications and integrating them with existingdata and systems. VBA offers a sophisticated set of programming tools that developers can useto harness the power of packaged and corporate applications. By using VBA to work with one or more of the Office application object models, one can easily modify the functionality of anOffice application or enable two or more Office applications to work together to accomplishtasks that no application can complete by itself. With VBA, the user controls only a small portion of the operating system, the part that is available through the functions and objectsexposed directly to VBA.Microsoft VBA is built upon COM, Microsoft’s architecture for software components. In order to customize any application using VBA, the application’s architecture must be based on COM.Since ArcObjects used in ArcGIS are based on COM, it has become very easy to customizeArcGIS using any COM compatible programming language. Most developers use VBA to createa COM component that works with ArcMap or ArcCatalog. Since the ESRI applications areCOM clients, their architecture supports the use of software components that adhere to the COM

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