W. LahmerMacro- and Mesoscale Hydrological Modelling in the Elbe River Basin3
Elbe river basin follow the special needs of large scale modelling (Lahmer and Becker 1998) and willbe outlined in the following.Basis of all simulation calculationsperformed with ARC/EGMO is the
so called ‘elementary unit map’,generated by a Geographic Infor-mation System (GIS) from all nec-essary digital information (landuse, vegetation cover, soil charac-teristics, topography, ground waterlevel, river net, sub-basins etc.) inthe pre-processing stage. This mapconsists of ‘elementary units’(EUs), which represent the smallestmodelling units of the modellingapproach and can be consideredhomogeneous with respect to theirhydrological behaviour. In general, the resolution of the EU map is directly determined by the resolu-tion of the used basic maps.Since for macroscale applications the number of EUs may be rather high, some maps should be spa-tially aggregated already in the pre-processing stage. In case of the whole German part of the Elbe riverbasin, the CORINE land use map was the basic map for data preparation, due to its high resolution andhydrological importance. The available 28 land use classes were pre-classified into the 6 classes givenin
, taking into account the hydrological and ecological sensitivities of the underlying sub-classes. The aggregated land use class ‘urban areas’, for example, now includes the original 7 sub-classes ‘closed urban areas’, ‘open urban areas’, ‘industrial areas’, ‘street and railway systems’, ‘ports’,‘airports’, and ‘recreational areas’. The dominant land use class in the Elbe basin is ‘arable land’ (frac-tional area of 53.37 %) followed by ‘forests’ (27.48 %)and ‘meadows’ (9.47 %). All important characteristics of the aggregated land-use classes (like degree of sealing,root depth, interception capacity, and degree of covering)are provided by relate tables coupled to the digital mapand can be directly used in the GIS-based simulation cal-culations.Combining the pre-classified land use map with the soilmap (55 different soil types in up to 8 layers), the digitalelevation model (DEM, 1 x 1 km resolution), thegroundwater level map (pre-classified into 3 classes with< 1m (‘shallow’, 15.7 % fractional area), 1-2 m (6.54 %)and > 2 m (‘deep’, 76.64 %) groundwater level depth),and the map of 93 sub-basins results in a map of 64.550elementary units. In
a section of about 85 x 70 kmof this map is shown, demonstrating the various size (upto 216 km², with a mean size of about 1.5 km²) and shapeof these modelling units. The EU-map emphasizes one of the advantages of the polygon-based disaggregation ap-proach, which results in larger spatial units in homoge-neous parts of the basin and in smaller spatial units inparts of high heterogeneity. This aspect is especially im-portant in simulating land use/land cover changes (as
: Pre-classified land use classes for the German part of theElbe river basin, including the original classification of the usedCORINE land use map, the number of elementary units defining theaggregated classes and their fractional areas.
aggregated land use classesCORINEclassification
nr. and namenr. of EUsfractionalarea [%]1,2,3,4,5,6,111 urban areas92126.6910,18,26,352 meadows87399.4712,19,20,21,273 arable land2342953.3716,23,24,25,294 forests1748727.4840,415 open water bodies42781.437,8,9,30,326 pasture8920.96
: Section of about 85 x 70 km of the ele-mentary units (EU) map generated for the Ger-man part of the Elbe basin. The total map con-sists of 64.550 EUs.