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Articles From Wikipedia

Articles From Wikipedia

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Published by: LCLibrary on Jul 04, 2009
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09/30/2012

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Contents
Articles from Wikipedia
Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation (2-3)Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation (3-4)Handedness and sexual orientation (4-5)Biology and sexual orientation (5-14)Environment and sexual orientation (14-16)
Simon le Vay’s summary of the studies
Non Biological theories (17-18)Biological theories (18-35)
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prenatal_ hormones _ and _ sexual_ orientation
Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation
 The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that, just as exposure to certainhormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation, such exposure alsoinfluences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. Fetalhormones may be seen as the primary determiner of adult sexualorientation, or a co-factor with genes and/or environmental and socialconditions.Male homosexuality as hyper-masculine There is evidence of a correlation between sexual orientation and traitsthat are determined in utero. Williams et al. (2000) found that fingerlength ratio, a characteristic controlled by prenatal hormones, isdifferent in people of distinct sexual orientations. Another study byMcFadden in 1998 found that auditory systems in the brain, anotherphysical trait influenced by prenatal hormones is different in those of differing orientations, likewise the suprachiasmatic nucleus of homosexual men was found by Swaab and Hopffman to be larger inhomosexual men than in heterosexual men, the suprachiasmaticnucleus is also known to be larger in men than in women. Gay menhave also been shown to have higher levels of circulating androgensand larger penises, on average, than straight men.Gay men have more older brothers on average, a phenomenon knownas the fraternal birth order effect. It has been suggested that thegreater the number of older male siblings the higher the level of androgen fetuses are exposed to.Male homosexuality as feminine or hypo-masculineIn a 1991 study, Simon LeVay demonstrated that a tiny clump of neurons of the anterior hypothalamus—which is believed to controlsexual behavior and linked to prenatal hormones—was on averagemore than twice the size in heterosexual men when contrasted tohomosexual men. Initially he could not rule out that this may be due toAIDS since all of his homosexual male subjects had died from it beforethe autopsies were performed. However in 2003 scientists at OregonState University announced that it replicated his findings in sheep.Female homosexualityGirls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (an autosomal recessivecondition which results in high androgen levels during fetaldevelopment) have more masculinized sex role identities and are morelikely to have a homosexual sexual orientation as adults than controls(Dittmann et al. 1990ab, 1992; Zucker et al., 1996; Hines et al., 2004).
 
An alternative explanation for this effect is that the fact that girls withthis condition are born with masculinized external genitalia leads theirparents to raise them in a more masculine manner which theninfluences their sexual orientation as adults. However, the degree towhich the girls' genitals are masculinized does not correlate with theirsexual orientation, suggesting that prenatal hormones are the causalfactor, not parental influence.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraternal_ birth _ order _ and _ sexual_ orientation
Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation
A correlation between fraternal birth order and sexual orientation hasbeen suggested by recent research. Ray Blanchard identified theassociation and referred to it as the fraternal birth order effect. Theobservation is that the more older brothers a man has, the greater theprobability is that he will have a homosexual orientation. It hassometimes been called the older brother effect.Empirical basis The fraternal birth order effect is the strongest known predictor of sexual orientation. According to several studies, each older brotherincreases a man's odds of developing a homosexual sexual orientationby 28%48%. The fraternal birth order effect accounts forapproximately one seventh of the prevalence of homosexuality in men. There seems to be no effect on sexual orientation in women, and noeffect related to the number of older sisters. The fraternal birth order effect has also been observed among male-to-female transsexuals: MtF transsexuals who are sexually interested inmen have a greater number of older brothers than MtF transsexualswho are sexually interested in women. This has been reported insamples from Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, andPolynesia.CriticismPeter Bearman (2002) questions the sampling method of Blanchardand other scientists who report a link between fraternal birth order andsexual orientation. He says that the studies work withnonrepresentative samples, and/or indirect reports on siblings’ sexualorientation. After repeating the experiment done by Blanchard hefound "no association between same-sex attraction and number of older siblings, older brothers, or older sisters". Theories of what causes the effect

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