Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
133Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Russian Language for English Learners by Pfournar

The Russian Language for English Learners by Pfournar

Ratings:

4.33

(3)
|Views: 3,107 |Likes:
Published by pfournar
The Russian Language for English Learners by Pfournar
The Russian Language for English Learners by Pfournar

More info:

Published by: pfournar on Jul 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/09/2013

pdf

text

original

 
The Russian Language
for English Learner
May 2009 (Incomplete Work) by pfournar@gmail.com
 
Table of Contents
Basic grammatical features .............................................................................................................5Basic phonetic features ...................................................................................................................6
The Handwriting Russian Alphabet.................................................................................................9BGN/PCGN Romanization of Russian..........................................................................................10
Word stress on the whole and applied to Russian language .........................................................13Russian stress has the following features .................................................................................13
Russian Pronunciation Guide.........................................................................................................16Palatalised (soft) and non-palatalised (hard).............................................................................16How to mark the softness of consonants ..................................................................................16"я", "ё", "ю", "е", "и"...........................................................................................................17The letter "ь"........................................................................................................................17Consonant......................................................................................................................................17Paired Consonants (Plain, Palatalised)......................................................................................17Unpaired consonants.................................................................................................................17Palatalised Consonants - Palatal Indicators...............................................................................17 Noisy consonant (ч щ ш ж ц) ..................................................................................................18Velar consonant (к г х).............................................................................................................18Vowels...........................................................................................................................................18Hard-Indicating Vowels (A, O, Ы, У, Э)..................................................................................18Soft-Indicating Vowels (Я, Е, Ё, Ю, И)...................................................................................20Ikanie....................................................................................................................................20Quick reference on "soft-indicating" vowels.......................................................................21Alphabet.........................................................................................................................................22Additional features of Russian pronunciation ..............................................................................24
Hard and Soft Vowels. ..................................................................................................................26Vowel Alternations after Soft Consonants....................................................................................27The Combination of й+V (y+vowel).............................................................................................27The soft sign (ь).............................................................................................................................28The 7 Consonant Rule (not ы but и). ............................................................................................28The 5 Consonant Rule or е).......................................................................................................28The Hush Rule (not ы я or ю but и а and у)..................................................................................28Upper or Lower Case?...................................................................................................................28Suffixes (Суффиксы)....................................................................................................................29
Classes of Russian pronouns..........................................................................................................34Personal Pronouns..........................................................................................................................35Possessive Pronouns......................................................................................................................37Demonstrative Pronouns................................................................................................................38The Interrogative Pronouns...........................................................................................................41Reflexive Pronouns........................................................................................................................45
Introduction....................................................................................................................................47Aspect............................................................................................................................................48Usage of Russian Verbs.................................................................................................................49The General Nature of the Russian Verb ......................................................................................51
 
Stem..........................................................................................................................................51What Are Conjugations?...........................................................................................................53Present- Future and The Conjugations......................................................................................54The Past Tense Endings ...........................................................................................................56The Rules of Stem-Ending Combination..................................................................................56Infinitive ........................................................................................................................................59Forming the infinitive...............................................................................................................59Uses of Infinitive.......................................................................................................................60Indicative Mood ............................................................................................................................61Conjugations of Verbs* (..Maybe I have to merge some headings)..............................................63Present Tense ................................................................................................................................66Ending of Present Tense ...............................................................................................................67Examples........................................................................................................................................68A Full Example.........................................................................................................................68Palatalization..................................................................................................................................69Where Does Palatalization Occur?............................................................................................70Past Tense .....................................................................................................................................71Future Tense .................................................................................................................................72Some Conjugated Russian Verbs...................................................................................................73Verbal Accent in Russian..............................................................................................................75Verbs of Motion.............................................................................................................................77Part 1 - Motion verbs without prefixes. - To Go.......................................................................77Part 2 - Other unprefixed verbs of motion................................................................................78Part 3 - Other unprefixed verbs of motion -To Carry...............................................................79Part 4 - Prefixed verbs of motion..............................................................................................79The Imperative Mood....................................................................................................................821st Way To Form Imperative....................................................................................................822nd Way To Form The Imperative..........................................................................................83Subjunctive Mood..........................................................................................................................85Reflexive Verbs.............................................................................................................................86Genuine Reflexives...................................................................................................................86Optative Reflexive Verbs..........................................................................................................87
Cases..............................................................................................................................................88Russian Nouns Genders.................................................................................................................89Exercise.....................................................................................................................................90Russian Genders' Table.............................................................................................................91Plural Nouns..................................................................................................................................92The Nominative Case.....................................................................................................................93The Accusative Case......................................................................................................................93Accusative Case Form .............................................................................................................93Instrumental Case (With, By)........................................................................................................94Declension.....................................................................................................................................95 Noun Declension Table.............................................................................................................95Mnemonic Rules of Cases.........................................................................................................96I Declension - Masculine Paired Consonants............................................................................97I Declension - Masculine Unpaired Consonants.......................................................................97I Declension – Neuter...............................................................................................................98II Declension - Feminine (and some masculine and epicene)...................................................99III Declension – Feminine only..............................................................................................100Russian Names - Русские имена................................................................................................102Examples: ..........................................................................................................................103

Activity (133)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
abozarsam liked this
Patrick Catthoor liked this
Shakey Mclovin liked this
takashiro liked this
Dan liked this
banarisali liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->