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Evidence

Evidence

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Published by WayneLawReview
Louis F. Meizlish, Evidence 58 Wayne L Rev. 739 (2012).
Louis F. Meizlish, Evidence 58 Wayne L Rev. 739 (2012).

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Published by: WayneLawReview on Sep 25, 2013
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739
EVIDENCE
L
OUIS
F.M
EIZLISH
I.I
NTRODUCTION
................................................................................... 742
 A.A Brief Introductory Note ...........................................................
742
 B.Appeals and Error ......................................................................
743
1.A Roadmap to Appellate Review of Evidentiary Rulings .....
745
2.Michigan Court Rule 7.205(E)(3): Emergency Interlocutory Appeals in Felony Criminal CasesFollowing an Order Admitting or Excluding Evidence............
748II.J
UDICIAL
N
OTICE
.............................................................................. 749
 A. Judicial Notice of a Party’s Compliance with Judicial Decisions, and Judicial Notice of Sociological Developmentsin the United States .........................................................................
750
 B. Judicial Notice of Legal Documents ..........................................
752
1. Judicial Notice of Foreign Government Organizations’ Rulings ............................................................
753
2. Judicial Notice of Previous CriminalConvictions at Sentencing for Subsequent Crimes ...................
754III.P
RESUMPTIONS IN
C
IVIL AND
C
RIMINAL
C
ASES
............................. 756IV.R
ELEVANCE AND
I
TS
L
IMITS
........................................................... 756
 A. Relevancy Generally ..................................................................
756
1. The Relevance of the Market Rate for Attendant Care in Determining Proper Compensation for Family-Provided Attendant Care .............................................
757
2. The Relevance of Government Legal Circulars inCriminal Cases in Which the Defendant Asserts aGood-Faith Defense .................................................................
758
 B. Conditional Relevance ...............................................................
759
C. Relevance of Impeachment Evidence .........................................
760
† Member of the State Bar of Michigan, 2011-Present; B.A., 2004, University of Michigan; J.D., 2011,
cum laude
, Wayne State University; Editor-in-Chief,
The Wayne Law Review,
2010-11; Deputy Director of External Affairs, Office of the MajorityLeader, Michigan Senate, 2007-08; Legislative Assistant and Press Secretary, Hon. JohnJ.H. “Joe” Schwarz, M.D., U.S. House of Representatives, 2005-07; Editor-in-Chief,
The Michigan Daily
, 2003-04. Any views I express herein are solely my own, and do notcarry the endorsementof any other person or entity
.
I welcome readers’ feedback viaelectronic mail to
meizlish@umich.edu
.I deeply appreciate the support I received in writing this article from my friends,colleagues, and, in particular, my parents – Sheldon and Aida Meizlish – and my fiancée,Dr. Erin Miller.
 
740 THE WAYNE LAW REVIEW [Vol. 58: 739
 D. Relevance of Rebuttal Evidence .................................................
763
1. Rebuttal Evidence Generally ................................................
764
2. The Relevance, and Admissibility, of PreviouslySuppressed Evidence for Rebuttal and/or Impeachment Purposes ...................................................................................
766
 E. Rule 403 Balancing ....................................................................
767
F. Character Evidence ....................................................................
770
1. Character Evidence of Homicide Victims ............................
770
2. Other Acts of Conduct ..........................................................
773
a. Other Acts Generally .....................................................
773
b. Other Acts of Personal-Protection-Order Violations ....
774
c. Defendants’ Other Acts of Selling Drugs to Establish Their Intent to Deliver Drugs WhenPossessing It ......................................................................
777
i. Danto’s Other Act of Selling Marijuana ........................
777
ii. Nater’s Other Act of Selling Marijuana ........................
779
d. Other Acts of an Alleged Co-Conspirator to Establish the Co-Conspirator’s Motive and Prove He Did Not Require the Defendant’s Assistanceto Perpetrate the Crime .....................................................
780
e. Other Acts to Establish a Carjacker’s Intent and  Identity ...............................................................................
783
i. Intent ...............................................................................
784
ii. Identity ...........................................................................
786
 f. Other Acts of Witness Tampering (EvidenceSpoliation) to Establish Consciousness of Guilt................
788
g. The Limits of Rule 404(b)(i). The Res Gestae Exception ...........................................................................
791
i. Writing a ‘Sex Manual’: An Admission, Not an ‘Other Act’ When the Author is on Trial for Sexual Molestation ............................................................
796
h. Statutory Admissibility of Character and Propensity Evidence ..........................................................
798
i. Offenses Against Minors: Section 27a ............................
799
ii. Other Acts of Domestic Violence ...................................
801
iii. Rape-Shield Statutes and Rules ....................................
802
 j. Roadmap for Admissibility of Other Acts of Conduct ....
802
G. Evidence of Compromise, Settlement and/or to Pay Medical Expenses ...........................................................................
804
1.Settlement Offers by State Actors in Malicious-Prosecution Actions ................................................
805
2. Evidence of an Insurer’s Initial Payments to the Insured to Establish Why the Plaintiff Sought, but 
 
2012]
 EVIDENCE 
741
 Later Discontinued, Medical Care ...........................................
810V.P
RIVILEGES
....................................................................................... 812
 A.The Clerical, or Priest-Penitent, Privilege .................................
812
 B. The Attorney-Client Privilege and Its Fiduciary Exception .......
818VI.W
ITNESSES
...................................................................................... 822
 A. The Personal-Knowledge Requirement ......................................
822
 B.Witness’ Comments as to Another Witness’ Credibility .............
824
C. Michigan Rule of Evidence 606: Competency of Juror asWitness…… .....................................................................................
824VII.O
PINION
T
ESTIMONY
..................................................................... 825
 A. Foundational Requirements for Expert Testimony ....................
825
1. Product Liability Actions .....................................................
827
2. Medical Malpractice Actions ...............................................
828
3. Expert Testimony in Criminal Cases as to Lawyer-Defendants’ Legal Obligations ...................................
833
4. Lost Earning Capacity in Personal Injury Cases .................
838
 B. The Scope of Expert Testimony: Speculation vs. Reasonable Inferences ....................................................................
839
C. Expert Testimony at Suppression Hearings ...............................
842
 D. Non-testifying Expert Opinion in Criminal Cases .....................
846
1.
Williams v. Illinois
...............................................................
846
2.
People v. Fackelman
............................................................
849VIII.H
EARSAY
,H
EARSAY
E
XCEPTIONS AND THE
A
DMISSIBILITYOF
O
UT
-
OF
-C
OURT
S
TATEMENTS UNDER THE
C
ONFRONTATION
C
LAUSE
.................................................................................................. 852
 A. Exclusions/Exemptions from the Definition of Hearsay .............
852
1. Prior Inconsistent Statements...............................................
852
2. Prior Consistent Statements .................................................
858
3. Party-Opponent’s Statements ...............................................
860
4. Statements in Furtherance of a Conspiracy .........................
861
 B. Hearsay Exceptions ....................................................................
863
1. Statements for the Purpose of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment .................................................................................
863
2. Recorded Recollection and Records of RegularlyConducted Activity ...................................................................
864
3. Statements by Vulnerable Victims ........................................
867
a. The Tender Years Exception ..........................................
867
b. Statements of Domestic-Assault Victims to PoliceOfficers ..............................................................................
871
C. The Admissibility of Out-of-Court Statements in thePost-
Crawford
 Era..........................................................................
874
1. Testimony Pertaining to Expert Reports Whose Authors Do Not Testify ..........................................................................
877

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