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Published by myprojectstudy
activated sludge!
activated sludge!

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Published by: myprojectstudy on Jul 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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A. DefinitionThe plumbing in a six-door cottage includes the installation of pipes, plumbingfixtures and other apparatus necessary in the design, installation and maintenance of  plumbing. There are two pipes known as the water supply and drainage pipes in whichsupply pipes convey and supply water while drainage pipes carry off the used water. Theused water is generally discharged and disposed into a common sewer or other place of disposal in a healthy and sanitary manner.B. PurposeBasically, plumbing is installed for personal comfort and convenience as well assanitation and public health measures. It has two main objectives, which are to supplywater to different parts of the cottage and to remove and discharge human excrementsand other substances out of the cottage. That is possible if there is enough water supplyand proper plumbing installation based on the requirements enumerated by the NationalPlumbing Code.2
For an effective water supply, there must be sufficient quantity of water to supply the plumbing fixtures and the prevention of backflow of used water into the water supplysystem. Backflow is the flow of water or other liquid mixture or substances into thedistributing pipes of a supply of water from any source, other than its intended source. Inother words, backflow brings danger to human health because it may contaminate thewater supply. Indeed, it is important to realize the importance of sanitation actions in theform of an efficient and effective water supply and sewage disposal.C. PrincipleHere is a general set of principles which can be used to guide us is found in theRecommended Minimum Requirements for Plumbing developed by the Bureauof Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce. These basic plumbing principleswere written to meet the minimum sanitary requirements for all parts of thecountry, after due consideration of differences in climate, building codes, andmethods of sewage disposal: All premises intended for human habitation or occupancy shall be provided with a supply of neither pure and wholesome water,neither connected with unsafe water supplies nor cross-connected through plumbing fixtures to the drainage system. If such premises abut on a street inwhich there is a public sewer, they shall have a connection, if possible, a separateconnection, with the sewer. Buildings in which water closets and other plumbingfixtures exist shall be provided with a supply of water adequate in volume and pressure for flushing purposes by pipes of sufficient size to supply such water without reducing pressure at other fixtures. Plumbing systems shall bemaintained in a sanitary condition and will be designed and constructed to guardagainst fouling and clogging, but with adequate and accessible cleanouts in case,such stoppages should occur. Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth, non-absorbent materials, shall be free from concealed fouling surfaces, and shall beset free of enclosures, with each fixture or combination fixture provided with aseparate, accessible, self-scouring, reliable, water-seal trap placed as near thefixture as possible. Drainage system piping shall be so designed and constructedas to be proof for a reasonable life of the building against leakage of water or drain air due to defective materials, imperfect connections, corrosion, settlementsor vibration of the ground or building, temperature changes, freezing, or other causes. The plumbing system shall be subject to a water- or air-pressure test and3

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