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LSAT_PT 49_Expl_web

LSAT_PT 49_Expl_web

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LSAT
*
PrepTest 49Explained
 
©
2006 Kaplan,Inc.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form,by photostat,microfilm,xerography,or any othermeans,or incorporated into any information retrieval system,electronic or mechanical,without the written permission oKaplan,Inc. LSAT is a registered trademark of the Law School Admission Council.
 
SECTION ILOGIC GAMES
Game 1: Twelve Films, Six Days
Situation:
An “international film retrospective.”
Entities:
Twelve films, six days.
Action:
Six films are shown, one on each day. So we’llhave to select the six films, then put them in order—aHybrid Selection/Sequencing game.
Limitations:
The six days are consecutive. Exactly sixof the twelve films are shown (so exactly six of themare not shown). One film is shown on each day. Thereare two films in each of the languages used.
The Initial Setup:
We’ll start off with our basicSequencing sketch, numbering the days 1 through 6. Itwill be easy to combine a Selection sketch with thisone; in fact, selection is the easiest action to add to aHybrid sketch, since a Selection setup is just a rosterof entities, and we write out a roster of the entities nomatter what action we’ll be doing in the game. Here, we just have to remember that we’ll be circling some of the films and crossing others out. Also, remember thatwe should write the letter for each type of film twice,since we have two of them available:
The Rules:
Rule 1
rules out showing a Norwegian film on two of the days, day 2 and day 4. We’ll just jot down “no N”beneath those days:
Rule 2
is simple, as long as you remember that “No Aunless B” means “If A, then B.” So this rule wouldtranslate as, “If a film in Italian is shown, then a film inNorwegian is shown the next day:”
Don’t forget to formulate the contrapositive. Here, itwould be, “If a film in Norwegian is
not 
shown the dayafter a film in Italian, then the film in Italian is notshown.”
Notice how specific our contrapositive is. Manystudents would write the trigger of this contrapositiveas “If not N,” but that would suggest that the rule isonly triggered when a film in Norwegian isn’t shown atall, and that doesn’t tell the whole story. Don’t fall intothe trap of changing difficult Formal Logic statementsto make them easier.
Rule 3
follows the same formulation as Rule 2, only ituses Greek and Italian:
Deductions:
There’s one quick and obvious duplicationthat allows us to combine Rules 2 and 3 to make a bigBloc of Entities. If a film in Greek is shown, then a filmin Italian is shown on the next day and a film inNorwegian is shown the day after that:The contrapositive is a bit more complicated here, butit still follows the same rules as all Formal Logicproblems. Just make sure you’re clear that the filmfestival could show an Italian film or a Norwegian filmwithout also showing a Greek film.There’s one more duplication in this game, and it tellsus more about where that Bloc of Entities can fit. A filmin Norwegian cannot be shown on day 2 or day 4, so afilm in Italian cannot be shown on day 1 or day 3, sinceRule 2 would force the Norwegian film onto the nextday. Furthermore, a film in Greek cannot be shown onday 2, day 5, or day 6 for the same reason. We can fillthis information into the slots of our sketch just like wedid the first rule:
G I NIf G
 G I N
not GIf notG IIf G
 G I
not GIf not
I N
not IIf not
I NIf I
 
1 2 3 4 5 6no N no N
FF GG HH II NN TT 1 2 3 4 5 6
Section I: Logic Games
1

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