Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
3Activity
P. 1
IntellAgents.wool(Neat Document)

IntellAgents.wool(Neat Document)

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,200|Likes:
Published by rajashekarpula

More info:

Published by: rajashekarpula on Jul 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Contents
1 Intelligent Agents 3
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 What are agents? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.1 Examples of Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2.2 Intelligent Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.3 Agents and Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.2.4 Agents and Expert Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3 Abstract Architectures for Intelligent Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.1 Purely Reactive Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.3.2 Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.3.3 Agents with state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.4 Concrete Architectures for Intelligent Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.4.1 Logic-based Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.4.2 Reactive Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.4.3 Belief-Desire-Intention Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291.4.4 Layered Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351.5 Agent Programming Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401.5.1 Agent-oriented programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401.5.2 Concurrent M
ETATE
M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
 
2 CONTENTS
 
1 Intelligent Agents
Michael Wooldridge
1.1 Introduction
Computers are not very good at knowing what to do: every action a computer performsmust be explicitly anticipated, planned for, and coded by a programmer. If a computerprogrameverencountersa situationthat itsdesignerdid notanticipate,thenthe resultisnotusually pretty — a system crash at best, multiple loss of life at worst. This mundane fact isat the heart of our relationship with computers. It is so self-evident to the computer literatethat it is rarely mentioned. And yet it comes as a complete surprise to those encounteringcomputers for the first time.For the most part, we are happy to accept computers as obedient, literal, unimaginativeservants. For many applications (such as payroll processing), it is entirely acceptable.However, for an increasingly large number of applications, we require systems that can
decide for themselves
what they need to do in order to satisfy their design objectives.Such computer systems are known as
agents
. Agents that must operate robustly in rapidlychanging, unpredictable, or open environments, where there is a significant possibility thatactions can
fail
are known as
intelligent agents
, or sometimes
autonomous agents
. Hereare examples of recent application areas for intelligent agents:When a space probe makes its long flight from Earth to the outer planets, a groundcrew is usually required to continually track its progress, and decide how to dealwith unexpected eventualities. This is costly and, if decisions are required
quickly
,it is simply not practicable. For these reasons, organisations like
NASA
are seriouslyinvestigating the possibility of making probes more autonomous — giving them richerdecision making capability and responsibilities.Searching the Internet for the answer to a specific query can be a long and tediousprocess. So, why not allow a computer program — an agent — do searches for us?The agent would typically be given a query that would require synthesising pieces of information from various different Internet information sources. Failure would occurwhen a particular resource was unavailable, (perhaps due to network failure), or whereresults could not be obtained.This chapter is about intelligent agents. Specifically, it aims to give you a thorough

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->