Social enterprise… a new solution to wellness. Exploring the roleof social enterprises in the promotion and protection of mental health in New Zealand.
Empowerment is central to health promotion (Clover et al., 2005; Downie, Tannahill& Tannahill, 1991; Durie, 1999; Labonte, 2001; Labonte & Reid, 1997; Laverack, 2004;Nutbeam & Harris, 2004; Raeburn & Rootman, 1998; Rissel, 1994; Robertson & Minkler,1994; World Health Organization, 1986) and social enterprise (Cabinet Office, 2006;Alter, no date; Amin, Hudson & Cameron, 2002; Gray, 2003; Pattinieme & Immonen,2002). To enable individuals and communities to gain power and participate fullyin society requires action which includes advocating for social, political, economicand environmental changes, providing a secure foundation for individuals andgroups to take control, and mediating between the different sectors that mighthave an impact on wellbeing (e.g., government, commercial, voluntary andcommunity) (World Health Organization, 2005). These actions, the authors of the
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
(World Health Organization, 1986) suggest,will ensure “legislation, fiscal measures, taxation and organisational measures tosupport wellbeing… living and working conditions that are safe, stimulating,satisfying and enjoyable… flexible systems for strengthening public participation…[and] personal and social development” (ibid).A working definition of empowerment is provided by Minkler (cited in Nutbeam &Harris, 2004): a social action process inwhich organisations, communities andindividuals gain control of their liveswithin a complex social and politicalsystem, thereby improving equity andquality of life.Torre (cited in Rissel, 1994) proposed threeessential components of communityempowerment: (1) intrapersonal factors,(2) mediating structures, and (3) social
Figure 1:The Empowerment Holosphere (Labonte 1996)