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Table Of Contents

Disturbances: Light or Severe
Power System Protection
Damage to Main Equipment
Protection System
Blackouts
Short Circuits Produce High Currents
Electrical Equipment Thermal Damage
Mechanical Damage During Short Circuits
The Fuse
Protection System Elements
DC Tripping Circuit
Circuit Breakers
Current Transformers
Voltage Transformers
Protective Relays
Examples of Relay Panels
How Do Relays Detect Faults?
Main Protection Requirements
Primary Protection
Primary Protection Zone Overlapping
Backup Protection
Typical Short-Circuit Type Distribution
Balanced vs Unbalanced Conditions
Decomposition of an Unbalanced System
Power Line Protection Principles
Application of Inverse-Type Relays
Inverse-Time Relay Coordination
Addition of Instantaneous OC Element
50/51 Relay Coordination
Overcurrent Relay Problem
Distance Relay Principle
The Impedance Relay Characteristic
Mho Element Characteristic (Directional Impedance Relay)
Three-Zone Distance Protection
Line Protection With Mho Elements
Circular Distance Relay Characteristics
Semi-Plane Type Characteristics
Distance Protection
Directional Comparison Pilot Protection Systems
Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip
Basic POTT Logic
Directional Comparison Blocking Scheme
Basic DCB Logic
Problem of Unequal CT Performance
Possible Scheme – Percentage Differential Protection Principle
Differential Protection Applications
Differential Protection
Multiple Input Differential Schemes
Advantages of Digital Relays
Synchrophasors Provide a “Snapshot” of the Power System
The Future
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Protection concepts

Protection concepts

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Published by Power Murugan
protection concepts
protection concepts

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Published by: Power Murugan on Sep 26, 2013
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09/26/2013

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