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Chemical Dictionary

Chemical Dictionary

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Published by dhanamadhan
Explanation for all abbreviation in chemical industry.
Explanation for all abbreviation in chemical industry.

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Published by: dhanamadhan on Jul 05, 2009
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05/09/2013

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Engineering Dictionary
A
1.
ABDC:
Abbreviation for after bottom dead center.
2.
ABMA -
American Boiler Manufacturers Association.
3.
ABRASION -
The wearing away of a surface byrubbing, as with sandpaper on wood.
4.
ABRASION RESISTANCE -
The ability of a materialto resist surface wear.
5.
ABRASIVE EROSION -
Erosive wear caused by therelative motion of solid particles which are entrainedin a fluid, moving nearly parallel to a solid surface.
6.
ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY -
Amount of moisture in theair, indicated in kg/kg of dry air.
7.
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE -
Total pressure measuredfrom an absolute vacuum. It equals the sum of thegauge pressure and the atmospheric pressurecorresponding to the barometer.
8.
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE -
Air at standard conditions(70°F air at sea level with a barometric pressure of 29.92 in Hg) exerts a pressure of 14.696 psi. This isthe pressure in a system when the pressure gaugereads zero. So the absolute pressure of a system isthe gauge pressure in pounds per square inch addedto the atmospheric pressure of 14.696 psi (use 14.7psi in environmental system work) and the symbol is"psia".
9.
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALE -
A scale of temperature measurement in which zero degrees isabsolute zero.
10.
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE
: The temperaturemeasured when absolute zero is used as areference. Absolute zero is -273.16°C or 469.69°F,and is the lowest measured temperature known.
11.
ABSOLUTE VELOCITY
-
12.
ABSOLUTE ZERO -
A hypothetical temperature atwhich there is total absence of heat. Since heat is aresult of energy caused by molecular motion, there isno motion of molecules with respect to each other atabsolute zero. It is theoretically the coldest possibletemperature.
13.
ABSOLUTE ZERO TEMPERATURE
- Temperaturemeasured from absolute zero (-459.67°F, or -273.16°C).
14.
ABSORBENT -
A material which, due to an affinityfor certain substances, extracts one or more suchsubstances from a liquid or gaseous medium withwhich it contacts and which changes physically or chemically, or both, during the process. Calciumchloride is an example of a solid absorbent, whilesolutions of lithium chloride, lithium bromide, andethylene glycols are liquid absorbents.
15.
ABSORBER -
That part of the low side of an absorptionsystem, used for absorbing vapor refrigerant.
16.
ABSORPTION -
A process whereby a material extractsone or more substances present in an atmosphere or mixture of gases or liquids accompanied by the material'sphysical and/or chemical changes.
17.
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM -
One inwhich the refrigerant, as it is absorbed in another liquid,maintains the pressure difference needed for successfuloperation of the system.
18.
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATOR -
Refrigerator thatcreates low temperatures by using the cooling effectformed when a refrigerant is absorbed by chemicalsubstance.
19.
ABSORPTION SYSTEM -
A refrigeration system in whichthe refrigerant gas evolved in the evaporator is taken up inan absorber and released in a generator upon theapplication of heat.
20.
ABSORPTION TOWER -
A tower or column, which effectscontact between a rising gas and a falling liquid, so thatpart of the gas may be taken up by the liquid.
21.
ABT:
Abbreviation for automatic bus transfer; an automaticelectric device that supplies power to vital equipment. Thisdevice will shift from the normal power supply to analternate power supply any time the normal supply isinterrupted.
22.
ACCELERATION -
The rate of change of velocity, as afunction of time. Expressed in m/s.
23.
ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY -
The rate of increase in velocity of a body falling freely in a vacuum. Itsvalue varies with latitude and elevation. The InternationalStandard is 32.174 ft. per second per second.
24.
ACCELERATION PERIOD -
In cavitation and liquidimpingement erosion, the stage following the incubationperiod, during which the erosion rate increases from near zero to a maximum value.
25.
ACCELRATION -
The time rate of change of velocity; i.e.,the derivative of velocity; with respect to time.
26.
ACCEPTABLE WELD -
A weld that meets all of therequirements and the acceptance criteria prescribed by thewelding specifications.
27.
ACCESSIBLE HERMETIC -
An assembly of motor andcompressor, inside a single bolted housing unit.
28.
ACCUMULATOR
- Storage tank which receives liquidrefrigerant from evaporator and prevents it from flowinginto suction line before vaporizing.
29.
ACETONE -
A filler added to acetylene cylinders, capableof absorbing 25 times its own volume of acetylene.
30.
ACID -
Literally hitter, but chemically the state of a water solution containing a high concentration of hydrogen ions.
 Page 1 of 79
 
Engineering Dictionary
31.
ACID ATTACK -
Caused by an incomplete flushingafter an acid cleaning process of boilers or similar equipment.
32.
ACID CLEANING -
The process of cleaning theinterior surfaces of steam generating units by fillingthe unit with dilute acid accompanied by an inhibitor to prevent corrosion and by subsequently draining,washing, and neutralizing the acid by a further washof alkaline water.
33.
ACID CONDITION IN SYSTEM
- Condition in whichrefrigerant or oil in a system, is mixed with vapor andfluids that are acidic in nature.
34.
ACID EMBRITTLEMENT -
A form of hydrogenembrittlement that may be induced in some metalsby an acid.
35.
ACID GAS -
A gas that that forms an acid whenmixed with water. In petroleum processing, the mostcommon acid gases are hydrogen sulfide and carbondioxide.
36.
ACID RAIN -
Atmospheric precipitation with an pHbelow 5.6 to 5.7.
37.
ACID SOAK -
A method of acid cleaning, in whichthe acid is pumped into the boiler and rests there for a period of time.
38.
ACIDIC -
The reaction of a substance with water resulting in an increase in concentration of hydrogenions in solution (see acid).
39.
ACIDIFIED -
The addition of an acid (usually nitric or sulfuric) to a sample to lower the pH below 2.0. Thepurpose of the acidification is to "fix" a sample so itwill not change until it is analyzed.
40.
ACIDITY -
Represents the amount of free carbondioxide, mineral acids, and salts (especially sulfatesof iron and aluminum) which hydrolyze to givehydrogen ions in the water. The acidity is reported asmillie equivalents per liter of acid, or ppm acidity ascalcium carbonate, or pH, the measure of hydrogenion concentration.
41.
ACOUSTIC -
A term pertaining to sound, or thescience of sound.
42.
ACROSS THE LINE -
A method of motor starting,which connects the motor directly to the supply lineon starting or running.
43.
ACTION -
Refers to the action of a controller. Itdefines what is done to regulate the final controlelement to effect control.
44.
ACTIVATED ALUMINA -
Chemical which is a form of aluminum oxide. It is used as a drier or desiccant.
45.
ACTIVATED CARBON
 
-
Is a specially processedcarbon, used as a filter drier. Commonly used toclean air.
46.
ACTIVATED SLUDGE -
An aerobic biological process for conversion of soluble organic matter to solid biomass,removable by gravity or filtration.
47.
ACTIVE STORAGE PILE -
A method of stockpiling coal,sometimes called live storage. The pile is located outsidethe plant but adjacent to it, and usually contains four or fivedays of operating supply. The pile is not compacted, as it isnot stored long enough to be exposed to the hazard of spontaneous combustion.
48.
ACTUATOR -
The portion of a regulating valve, whichconverts mechanical, fluid, thermal, or electrical energy;into mechanical motion to open or close the valve seats or other such devices.
49.
ADDITIVE
: A material that is added to improve fuel or oil.
50.
ADIABATIC -
Occurring with no addition or loss of heatfrom the system under consideration.
51.
ADIABATIC CHANGE -
A change in the volume, pressure,or temperature of a gas, occurring without a gain of heat or loss of heat.
52.
ADIABATIC COMPRESSION -
Compressing a gas withoutremoving or adding heat.
53.
ADIABATIC COOLING -
A method in which paramagneticsalts are pre-cooled, and then demagnetized, therebyproducing further cooling.
54.
ADIABATIC EFFICIENCY
-The ratio of actual work outputof a heat engine to the ideal output.
55.
ADIABATIC EXPANSION -
The expansion of a gas, vapor,or liquid stream from a higher pressure to a lowepressure, with no change in enthalpy.
56.
ADIABATIC FLAME TEMPERATURE
- The theoreticaltemperature that would be attained by the products of combustion provided the entire chemical energy of the fuel,the sensible heat content of the fuel and combustion abovethe datum temperature were transferred to the products of combustion. This assumes: No heat loss to surroundingsand no dissociation.
57.
ADIABATIC PROCESS
- A thermo-dynamic process inwhich no heat is extracted from or added to the system of the process.
58.
ADIABATIC SATURATION PROCESS
- A process todetermine absolute or relative humidity.
59.
ADJUSTABLE DIFFERENTIAL -
A means of changing thedifference between the control cut-in and cutout points.
60.
ADJUSTABLE RESISTOR
- A resistor whose value can bemechanically changed, usually by the use of a slidingcontact.
61.
ADSORBENT
- A material which has the ability to causemolecules of gases, liquids or solids to adhere to itsinternal surfaces without changing the adsorbent physicallyor chemically. In water treatment, a synthetic resin
 Page 2 of 79
 
Engineering Dictionary
possessing the ability to attract and to hold chargedparticles.
62.
ADSORPTION -
The adhesion of the molecules of gases, dissolved substances, or liquids in more or less concentrated form, to the surface of solids or liquids with which they are in contact. Commercialadsorbent materials have enormous internalsurfaces.
63.
ADSORPTION INHIBITORS -
They are materialswhich caused them to be adsorbed on to the metalsurface due to their polar properties.
64.
ADVECTION
- The transfer of heat by horizontalmovement of air.
65.
AERATION -
Exposing to the action of air, likeblowing air through water before discharging to ariver.
66.
AERATION CELL
- (see oxygen cell)
67.
AEROBIC -
A condition in which "free" or dissolvedoxygen is present in water.
68.
AERODYNAMIC NOISE -
Also called generatednoise, self-generated noise; is noise of aerodynamicorigin in a moving fluid arising from flow instabilities.In duct systems, aerodynamic noise is caused byairflow through elbows, dampers, branch wyes,pressure reduction devices, silencers and other ductcomponents.
69.
AFTERCOOLER
: A device used on turbo-chargedengines to cool air that has undergone compression.
70.
AGGLOMERATE -
The clustering together of a fewor many particles into a larger solid mass.
71.
AGITATOR -
A device used to cause motion inconfined fluids.
72.
AIR -
A substance containing by volumeapproximately 78 - 79% nitrogen; 20.95% oxygen,.94% argon, traces of carbon dioxide, helium, etc.
73.
AIR ATOMIZING OIL BURNER
- A burner for firingoil in which the oil is atomized by compressed air,which is forced into and through one or morestreams of oil which results in the breaking of the oilinto a fine spray.
74.
AIR
 
BIND
: The presence of air in a pump or pipes,which prevents the delivery of liquid.
75.
AIR BLAST TRANSFORMER
- A transformer cooledby forcing a circulation of air around its windings.
76.
AIR BLANKETING
- An accumulation of air in a heatexchanger or other vessel which impedes heattransfer.
77.
AIR
 
BLEEDER
: A device that removes air from ahydraulic system. Types include a needle valve,capillary tubing to the reservoir, and a bleed plug
78.
AIR CAPACITOR
- Is a capacitor, which uses air as thedielectric between the plates.
79.
AIR CHANGES -
A method of expressing the amount of air leakage into or out of a building or room in terms of thenumber of building volumes or room volumes exchanged.
80.
AIR CLEANER
- A devise used to remove air borneimpurities [A device (filter) for removing unwanted solidimpurities from the air before the air enters the intakemanifold]
81.
AIR COIL
- Coil on some types of heat pumps used either as an evaporator or a condenser.
82.
AIR
 
COMPRESSOR
: A device used to increase aipressure.
83.
AIR CONDITIONER
- They are basically refrigerationdevices cooling air and rooms rather then foodcompartments.
84.
AIR CONDITIONER, UNITARY -
An evaporator,compressor, and condenser combination; designed in oneor more assemblies, the separate parts designed to beassembled together.
85.
AIR CONDITIONING
-The process of treating air tosimultaneously control its temperature, humidity,cleanliness, and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space.
86.
AIR CONDITIONING UNIT -
An assembly of equipment for the treatment of air so as to control, simultaneously, itstemperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meetthe requirements of a conditioned space.
87.
AIR CONDITIONING, COMFORT -
The process of treatingair so as to control simultaneously its temperature,humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the comfortrequirements of the occupants of the conditioned space.
88.
AIR COOLER -
A factory-encased assembly of elementswhereby the temperature of air passing through the deviceis reduced.
89.
AIR DEFICIENCY
- Insufficient air, in an air-fuel mixture, tosupply the oxygen required for complete oxidation of thefuel.
90.
AIR DIFFUSER -
A circular, square, or rectangular air distribution outlet, generally located in the ceiling andcomprised of deflecting members discharging supply air invarious directions and planes, and arranged to promotemixing of primary air with secondary room air.
91.
AIR DIFFUSION AERATORS -
They are aerators intowhich air is pumped into the water through perforatedpipes, plates, or any other method.
92.
AIR DUCT
- A tube or conduit for conveying air from oneplace to another.
93.
AIR
 
EJECTOR
: A jet pump that removes air and non-condensable gases.
 Page 3 of 79

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