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MPEG 2 Transmission

MPEG 2 Transmission

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Published by Rehan S. Mirza
The MPEG-2 standards define how to format the various component parts of a multimedia programme (which may consist of: MPEG-2 compressed video, compressed audio, control data and/or user data). It also defines how these components are combined into a single synchronous transmission bit stream. The process of combining the steams is known as multiplexing.
The MPEG-2 standards define how to format the various component parts of a multimedia programme (which may consist of: MPEG-2 compressed video, compressed audio, control data and/or user data). It also defines how these components are combined into a single synchronous transmission bit stream. The process of combining the steams is known as multiplexing.

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Published by: Rehan S. Mirza on Sep 26, 2013
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MPEG-2 Transmission
The
standards define how to format the various component parts of a multimediaprogramme (which may consist of: MPEG-2 compressed video, compressed audio, control dataand/or user data). It also defines how these components are combined into a singlesynchronous transmission bit stream. The process of combining the steams is knownas
 
multiplexing 
.The multiplexed stream may be transmitted over a variety of links, standards / products are (or will soon be) available for :Radio Frequency Links (UHF/VHF)Digital Broadcast Satellite LinksCable TV NetworksStandard Terrestrial Communication Links (PDH, SDH)Microwave Line of Sight (LoS) Links (wireless)Digital Subscriber Links (ADSL family)Packet / Cell Links (ATM, IP, IPv6, Ethernet)Many of these formats are being standardised by the
project.
Building the MPEG Bit Stream
To understand how the component parts of the bit stream are multiplexed, we need to first lookat each component part. The most basic component is known as an
 
Elementary Stream
 
inMPEG. A programme (perhaps most easily thought of as a television programme, or a DigitalVersatile Disk (DVD) track) contains a combination of elementary streams (typically one for video, one or more for audio, control data, subtitles, etc).
Elementary Stream (ES)
Each
 
Elementary Stream (ES)
 
output by an MPEG audio, video and (some) data encoderscontain a single type of (usually compressed) signal. There are various forms of ES, including:Digital Control DataDigital Audio (sampled and compressed)Digital Video (sampled and compressed)
 
 
Digital Data (synchronous, or asynchronous)For video and audio, the data is organised into
 
access units
, each representing a fundamentalunit of encoding. For example, in video, an access unit will usually be a complete encoded videoframe.
Packetised Elementary Stream (PES)
Each ES is input to an MPEG-2 processor (e.g. a video compressor or data formatted) whichaccumulates the data into a stream of 
 
Packetised Elementary Stream (PES)
 
packets. A PESpacket may be a fixed (or variable) sized block, with up to 65536 bytes per block and includes a6 byte protocol header. A PES is usually organised to contain an integral number of ES accessunits.The PES header starts with a 3 byte start code, followed by a one byte stream ID and a 2 bytelength field.The following well-known stream IDs are defined in the MPEG standard:1. 110x xxxx - MPEG-2 audio stream number x xxxx.2. 1110 yyyy - MPEG-2 video stream number yyyy.3. 1111 0010 - MPEG-2
DSM-CC control packets. The next field contain the
 
PES Indicators.
 
These provide additional information about the streamto assist the decoder at the receiver. The following indicators are defined:PES_Scrambling_Control - Defines whether scrambling is used, and the chosenscrambling method.PES_Priority - Indicates priority of the current PES packet.data_alignment_indicator - Indicates if the payload starts with a video or audio startcode.copyright information - Indicates if the payload is copyright protected.original_or_copy - Indicates if this is the original ES. A one byte flags field completes the PES header. This defines the following optional fields,which if present, are inserted before the start of the PES payload.
Presentation Time Stamp (PTS)
 
and possibly a
 
Decode Time Stamp (DTS) -
 
For audio /video streams these time stamps which may be used to synchronise a set of elementarystreams and control the rate at which they are replayed by the receiver.
Elementary Stream Clock Reference (ESCR)
 
Elementary Stream rate
 
- Rate at which the ES was encoded.
Trick Mode
 
- indicates the video/audio is not the normal ES, e.g. after DSM-CC hassignalled a replay.Copyright Information - set to 1 to indicated a copyright ES.CRC - this may be used to monitor errors in the previous PES packetPES Extension Information - may be used to support MPEG-1 streams.The PES packet payload includes the ES data. The information in the PES header is, ingeneral, independent of the transmission method used.
 
MPEG-2 Multiplexing
The MPEG-2 standard allows two forms of multiplexing:
MPEG Program Stream
 
 A group of tightly coupled PES packets referenced to the sametime base. Such streams are suited for transmission in a relatively error-freeenvironment and enable easy software processing of the received data. This form of multiplexing is used for video playback and for some network applications.
MPEG Transport Stream
 
Each PES packet is broken into fixed-sized transport packetsforming a general purpose way of combining one or more streams, possibly withindependent time bases. This is suited for transmission in which there may be potentialpacket loss or corruption by noise, or / and where there is a need to send more than oneprogramme at a time.
Combining Elementary Streams from encoders into a Transport Stream (red) or a Programme Stream (yellow).The Service Information (SI) component on the transport stream is not shown.
 
The Programme Stream is widely used in digital video storage devices, and also where thevideo is reliably transmitted over a network (e.g. video-clip down load).
 
Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)
 
uses the MPEG-2 Transport Stream over a wide variety of under-lying networks
.
 
Sinceboth the Program Stream and Transport Stream multiplex a set of PES inputs, interoperabilitybetween the two formats may be achieved at the PES level.
 
MPEG Transport Streams
 A transport stream consists of a sequence of fixed sized transport packet of 188 B. Each packetcomprises 184 B of payload and a 4 B header. One of the items in this 4 B header is the 13bit
 
Packet Identifier (PID)
 
which plays a key role in the operation of the Transport Stream.The format of the transport stream is described using the figure below (a later section describesthe detailed format of the
TS packet header ). This figure shows two elementary streams sent inthe same MPEG-2 transport multiplex. Each packet is associated with a PES through the settingof the PID value in the packet header (the values of 64 and 51 in the figure). The audio packetshave been assigned PID 64, and the video packets PID 51 (these are arbitrary, but different

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