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Brain Activity and Distant Information, Scott MA and Persinger MA.

Brain Activity and Distant Information, Scott MA and Persinger MA.

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Published by Ivan Roca
The independently rated congruence of subjects’ drawings and descriptions with the content of affective pictures
hidden ~50 m away were correlated with cerebral quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and LORTEA (Low
Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) over three weekly trials. A shift over time from left prefrontal gamma
activity to right caudal hemispheric delta activity was associated with increased accuracy. Increased accuracies for
the details for the non-local stimuli during sessions were associated with greater congruence within the 25-30 Hz
and theta (4-7 Hz) range between the parahippocampal regions. Increased theta power also occurred in the left
anterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus and midtemporal regions. We suggest that experiences of non-locality involve confluence within the right parahippocampal region and are translated for their personal and linguistic equivalents within specific left hemispheric structures.
and linguistic equivalents
within specific left hemispheric structures.
The independently rated congruence of subjects’ drawings and descriptions with the content of affective pictures
hidden ~50 m away were correlated with cerebral quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and LORTEA (Low
Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) over three weekly trials. A shift over time from left prefrontal gamma
activity to right caudal hemispheric delta activity was associated with increased accuracy. Increased accuracies for
the details for the non-local stimuli during sessions were associated with greater congruence within the 25-30 Hz
and theta (4-7 Hz) range between the parahippocampal regions. Increased theta power also occurred in the left
anterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus and midtemporal regions. We suggest that experiences of non-locality involve confluence within the right parahippocampal region and are translated for their personal and linguistic equivalents within specific left hemispheric structures.
and linguistic equivalents
within specific left hemispheric structures.

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Published by: Ivan Roca on Sep 27, 2013
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NeuroQuantology | September 2013 | Volume 11 | Issue 3 | Page 378-390Scott MA and Persinger MA., Brain Activity and Distant Informationwww.neuroquantology.com378
 
Cerebral Activity and Source ProfilesAccompanying the Process of Non-Locality
Mandy A. Scott
*
and Michael A. Persinger
*,
,
 
ABSTRACT
The independently rated congruence of subjects’ drawings and descriptions with the content of affective pictureshidden ~50 m away were correlated with cerebral quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and LORTEA (LowResolution Electromagnetic Tomography) over three weekly trials. A shift over time from left prefrontal gammaactivity to right caudal hemispheric delta activity was associated with increased accuracy. Increased accuracies forthe details for the non-local stimuli during sessions were associated with greater congruence within the 25-30 Hzand theta (4-7 Hz) range between the parahippocampal regions. Increased theta power also occurred in the leftanterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus and midtemporal regions. We suggest that experiences of non-locality involveconfluence within the right parahippocampal region and are translated for their personal and linguistic equivalentswithin specific left hemispheric structures.
Key Words: 
QEEG, s_LORETA, detection of distance stimuli, non-locality, temporal lobes, parahippocampal gyrus,theta activity
NeuroQuantology 2013; 3: 378-390
1
.
Introduction
1
 
Human perceptions are cerebral phenomenathat involve the combined processes of sensation and memory. Sensation is defined asthe responses to stimuli which are defined asenvironmental events that elicit, throughtransductions of energies, more or lessconsistent changes in the occurrence orprobabilities of those responses. Memory isthe representation of experiences withincerebral space. For most phenomena and formost explanations there is the assumption of locality. Locality indicates that any relationship between a stimulus and response
Corresponding author
: M. A. Persinger
Address
:Department of Psychology
*
, Behavioural NeuroscienceProgram
, Biomolecular Sciences Program
Laurentian University, 935Ramsey Lake Road, P3E 2C6, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
Phone
: +01-705-675-4824
Fax
: +01-705-671-3844 
 mpersinger@laurentian.ca
Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures:
 Nothing toreport. Full financial disclosures and author roles may be found in theonline version of this article.
Received
August 12, 2013.
Accepted
August 27, 2013.
e
ISSN 1303-5150
 
occurs because there is some mediatingprocess in the proximity that allows thestimulus to elicit the response (Persinger andLavallee, 2010; 2012; Stepp, 2009). In thisstudy we investigated the possible involvementof non-locality for the acquisition of distantinformation within hidden pictures by examining rated accuracies for these details with measurements of quantitativeelectroencephalography (QEEG) and onemethod of source localization, s_LORETA (Low Resolution ElectromagneticTomography).The effect of event A upon event B, orstimulus and response, is the basis of  behavioral approaches to living systems. Ingeneral instances the causal connection between A and B is assumed to be mediated by a factor they both share such electromagneticor mechanical energies. However, the
a priori 
understanding for a mechanism that involveslocality, that is some process that mediates theeffect of the stimulus upon the response, is notessential to study or to measure thephenomenon.
 
NeuroQuantology | September 2013 | Volume 11 | Issue 3 | Page 378-390Scott MA and Persinger MA., Brain Activity and Distant Informationwww.neuroquantology.com379
Over the long history of rationalinquiry there has been a subset of phenomenaattributed to conditions of non-locality. In thissetting a stimulus occurs in one setting and aresponse occurs elsewhere without theapparent direct causal connection from amediating source at the time. The occurrencesof these “excess correlations” did not meanthat the mechanisms were not ultimately understandable. For example in the 19
th
 century the avoidance (response) of objects(stimuli) in the dark by bats was attributed to“psychic detection”, the contemporary description for non-locality. The measurementand quantification of ultrasound supplied themissing mediating process.The most singular development thatrevealed the mechanisms involved withoperations of natural and physical phenomenahas been technology. The rapid developmentof quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and the algorithms to discern three-dimensional activity within the cerebral volume such as s_LORETA (low resolutionelectromagnetic tomography), like fMRItechnology, have shown that proximal stimulican produce changes in focal brain activity  without awareness (Berns
et al.,
1997). Thesemeasurements are consistent with the fact thatconsciousness may require a critical mass of neuronal patterns or numbers (Fendrich
et al.,
 1992; Huang
et al.,
2007).Considering the more sophisticatedtools now available to brain researchhistorically eccentric phenomena can be re-examined with the possibility of meaningfuldiscovery. The first involves the acquisition of information from a distance about an object,for example a picture unknown to thepercipient hidden in an envelope at asignificant distance. During the last 100 yearsthere has been intermittent focus on thischallenging philosophical problem thatincluded the “psychic” research studies of thelate 19
th
century (Harrington, 1995), theexploration of “extrasensory perception” by Rhine and Pratt (1957) during the first half of the 20
th
century, the remarkably reliableMaimonides “dream telepathy” researchduring the 1960s by Krippner and hiscolleagues (Ullman
et al.,
1989), and morerecently the Stanford Research Institute’s“remote viewing” paradigm developed by Puthoff and Targ with the help of Ingo Swann(Puthoff and Targ, 1976).The persistence of these effectssuggests the presence of a yet to be discernedphysical process that may reveal the boundaries of the human brain’s capacity toaccess information from space-time. In thepresent experiments we combined threeapproaches in a novel manner. First thepotential role of entanglement was employed by insuring that the experiencers had been inthe same space where the stimulus would belocated. Such shared space has been shownexperimentally to facilitate excess correlationsconsistent with one definition of entanglement(Dotta
et al.,
2009; 2011a, b; Dotta andPersinger, 2012). Second QEEG ands_LORETA measurements were obtained while the subjects were engaging in cognitionabout the details of hidden pictures and thencompared to the accuracies of descriptions.
Experimental Procedures
 Subjects
 A total of 14 male (n=2) and female (n=12)subjects volunteered for the experiment inresponse to advertisements in a localnewspaper for people interested in psychicresearch. Their ages ranged between 26 and 78 years.
 Procedure: Non-Local Experiences (NLE)
Each subject engaged in three separate NonLocal Experience (NLE) episodes, once per week, for three consecutive weeks inNovember and December 2011. On each day of the experiment the subject was first escortedto the area where a picture was to be locatedand then escorted back to a room (about 50 maway) where the QEEG was measured.For each day of the experiment thesubject wore a 19 channel sensor cap (MitsarEEG-201). Three samples were collectedduring the 3 min baseline followed by a singlesample during visualization while the subjectsimagined walking from the test room to theroom where the picture was sequestered.During the subsequent 10 min the subjectengaged in attempts to perceive the picturethat had been placed in the room a few minutes previously. There were three samplesof QEEG measurements when the eyes wereclosed and three samples when the eyes wereopened. During this period each subjectfocused upon receiving information about thepicture. At the end of this period a post session
 
NeuroQuantology | September 2013 | Volume 11 | Issue 3 | Page 378-390Scott MA and Persinger MA., Brain Activity and Distant Informationwww.neuroquantology.com380
QEEG sample (eyes closed) was completed.Consequently there were a total of 11, 30 sEEG samples per week. During the NLE of thehidden pictures the subject recorded and wrote down all of his or her images orimpressions that occurred when focusing onthe place where the picture was located.There were a total of 3 hidden pictures(1 per week) for each subject (n=42) that had been obtained from a collection of photographs provided by Professor Don Hill,an artist and journalist from the University of Edmonton. The 8 x 11 pictures printed in coloron typing paper had been selected for theiremotive, colorful, and striking characteristics.Each picture had been placed in an 8 x 11sealed manila envelope with the face up by another person. These envelopes were thengiven to the experimenter. The experimenterdid not see the photographs until after thesessions were completed.
Quantitative EEG data
The data from each of the 19 channels wereanalyzed by WINEEG software to obtain theuV 
2
/Hz values for six classic EEG intervals:delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz) alpha (8-13 Hz)low beta (13-20 Hz), high beta (20-30 Hz) andgamma (30-40 Hz for each of the 11 samples of EEG measurements for each of the three weeks. The power for each frequency band wasextracted and exported into SPSS WindowsPC.
 Narrative-Drawing-Picture Scoring
 A total of 10 individuals not involved with theexperiment volunteered as judges. One groupof 5 judges assessed the narratives for each of 21 pictures while another 5 judges assessed thenarratives for the other 21 pictures. The judges were all graduate students who were familiar with the concepts of consciousness and NLE but who did not know the subjects. For judgingof accuracy each judge was tested singly. Eachoriginal picture was presented with 3 otherpictures on a table in front of the judge. The judge read the narrative and then ranked thepictures according to which one was most(rank=1) to least (rank=4) like the descriptionsor drawings. Then the four pictures wereremoved and another 4 pictures (1 being theoriginal picture) was assessed according to thenarrative that was recorded for the subjectduring NLE for that picture. All judges weretold that both perceptual and emotive themesshould be emphasized.Consequently for each narrative foreach subject a rank of 1 to 4 was obtained foreach of the three weeks. The mean of the fiverankings for each narrative for congruence with the “target” picture was calculated foreach subject for each of the three weeks. As aresult there were a total of 42 scores withranks between 1 and 4.The most appropriate method to assessthe potential field or matrix nature of therelationship between congruence betweennarratives and picture information and EEGactivity was multiple regression. Theseanalyses were completed for the averageaccuracy scores for each of the three weeks.This means that there were a total of 11multiple regressions for each EEG sample for agiven week. All measures from the 19 channelsand 6 frequency bands were allowedpotentially to enter. Because there were only 14 subjects, the criteria set for maximumnumbers of variables to enter the equation was3.One method to control for such largenumbers of variables is to discern temporalcongruency. To assess this feature the EEGdata for a given week was analyzed not only forthe accuracy scores for the same week but alsoin independent analyses the accuracy scoresfor the other two weeks. We assumed thatrandom or spurious relationships associated with employing such large numbers of independent variables could be differentiated.One would predict that the greatest numbersof significant variables to enter an equation forpredicting the congruency scores betweennarratives and pictures according to judges’ratings should occur for the same week.The outputs for the 11 (6 NLE, 5 baselines or visualizations) multipleregressions of EEG data for each week foraccuracy for each week (33 x 3=99) employingthe above criterion were obtained. Thenumbers of EEG variables that entered (of thepossible 0 to 3) were extracted. To discern if there were differences in the entry of EEG variables from different lobes, hemispheres, orfrequency bands, this information wasextracted as well. These data were thenanalyzed by SPSS PC software. Chi-squaredanalyses, where appropriate, were calculatedmanually.

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