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Published by miningnova
A paper on Lead Metal Processing with flow charts
A paper on Lead Metal Processing with flow charts

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: miningnova on Jul 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Lead Metal Processing Technology
Primary Lead Processing
Primary Lead production begins with sintering. Concentrated Lead ore isfed into a sintering machine with iron, silica, limestone fluxes, coke, sodaash, pyrite, zinc, caustics or pollution control particulates. The mixture isblasted with hot air to burn off the Sulphur and sent to the smelter.
Lead Melting Technology
Lead is usually smelted in a blast furnace using the carbon from thesintering machine to provide the heat source. As melting occurs, severallayers form in the furnace. The molten Lead layer sinks to the bottom of the furnace. A layer of the lightest elements, including arsenic andantimony, floats to the top and is referred to as the "speiss." A "matte"layer also forms from the copper and metal sulfides. Finally, a layer of blast furnace slag, which contains mostly silicates, also forms. The speissand the matte are usually sold to copper smelters where they are refined
for copper processing. The slag is stored and partially recycled, if themetal content is sufficient.The Lead from the blast furnace, called Lead bullion, and then undergoesthe drossing process. The bullion is agitated in kettles then cooled to 700-800 degrees. This process results in molten Lead and dross. Dross refersto the Lead oxides, copper, antimony and other elements that float to thetop of the Lead. Dross is usually skimmed off and sent to a dross furnaceto recover the non-Lead components which are sold to other metalmanufactures.
Finally, the molten Lead is refined. Pyrometallurgical methods are usuallyused to remove the remaining non-Lead components of the mixture. Thenon-Lead metals are usually sold to other metal processing plants. Therefined Lead may be made into alloys or directly cast.
Secondary Lead Processing
Most of the Lead produced comes from secondary sources. Lead scrapincludes Lead acetate batteries, cable coverings, pipes, sheets and Leadcoated, or terne bearing, metals. Solder, product waste and dross mayalso be recovered for its small Lead content. Most secondary Lead isused in batteries.To recover Lead from a battery, the battery is broken and the componentsare classified. The Lead containing components are processed in blastfurnaces for hard Lead or rotary reverberatory furnaces for fine particles.The blast furnace is similar in structure to a cupola furnace used in ironfoundries. The furnace is charged with slag, scrap iron, limestone, coke,oxides, dross, and reverberatory slag. The coke is used to melt andreduce the Lead. Limestone reacts with impurities and floats to the top.This process also keeps the Lead from oxidizing. The molten Lead flowsfrom the blast furnace into holding pots. Lead may be mixed with alloys,

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