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EIJCSE3115

EIJCSE3115

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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERINGVolume3,No1,2012
©Copyrightbytheauthors-LicenseeIPA-UnderCreativeCommonslicense3.0
ResearcharticleISSN0976–4399

 ReceivedonMarch,2012PublishedonAugust2012
158
Assessmentofsuitabilityofexistingmixdesignmethodsofnormalconcretefordesigninghighperformanceconcretemixes
PopatD.Kumbhar
1
,PraneshB.Murnal
2
1-AssociateProfessor,DepartmentofCivilEngineering,RajarambapuInstituteofTechnology,Rajaramnagar,Sakharale,Dist.Sangli(M.S.),India2-ProfessorandHead,DepartmentofAppliedMechanics,GovernmentCollegeofEngineering,AurangabadDist.Aurangabad,(M.S.)India.kumbharpd@rediffmail.comdoi:10.6088/ijcser.201203013015
ABSTRACT
Theprimeobjectiveofproportioningaconcretemixistoobtainrelativequantitiesofingredientsforthemosteconomicalmixthatmeetstheminimumcriteriaofstrength,workability,durability,aggregatecharacteristicsandeconomy.Anumberofstandardmixproportioningmethodsareavailableforconventionalnormalstrengthconcrete(NSC).Concretewithacompressivestrengthlessthan50MPaisregardedasnormalstrengthconcrete(NSC).Mixproportioningofhighperformanceconcrete(HPC)isamorecriticalprocessthanthatofNSCinviewofhigherpowdercontentandrequirementoflowwater-binderratio.ExistingmixdesignmethodsofNSCsuchasBureauofIndianStandards(BIS),DepartmentofEnvironment(DOE),AmericanConcreteInstitute(ACI)arenotdirectlyapplicablefordesigningHPCmixesduetoseveralreasons,primarilyduetothepresenceofmineraladmixtures.ItisfeltthatthemixdesignproceduresforHPCcanbebasedontheseavailablemethodsbutwithsuitablemodifications.Therefore,thispaperexaminesthesuitabilityofthesemethodsofmixdesignthroughexperimentalproceduresonmixescontainingmineraladmixtureslikemicro-silicaandflyash.TheresultsindicatethatsomeofthesemethodscanbeappliedformakingHPCmixeswithcertainmodificationsintheproportionsofaggregatesandalsoindosagesofspecifictypesofsuperplasticizerforachievingdesiredworkabilityandstrengthproperties.
Keywords:
Mixproportioning,NSC,HPC,compressivestrength,workability.
1.Introduction
Concreteisanextremelyversatilebuildingmaterialbecause,itcanbedesignedforcompressivestrengthsrangingfromM10to140MPaorhigher(Caldarone,2009)
andworkabilityrangingfrom0mmslumpto150mmslumpormore.Inallthesecasesthebasicingredientsofconcretearethesame,butitistheirrelativeproportioningthatmakesthedifference.Concretemixdesignisthemethodofcorrectproportioningofingredientsofconcreteasperthesiterequirements,inordertoobtaindesirablepropertiesofconcreteinplasticaswellinhardenedstage.Proportioningaconcretemixismoreofanartthanapurescienceandmethodsforitarestillevolving(Santhakumar,2009).Manymethodshavebeendevelopedtoarriveattheseproportionsinascientificmanner.Therearefourwellestablishedmixdesignproceduresfordesigningnormalstrengthconcrete(NSC)mixesnamelyIndian,American,USBureauofReclamation(USBR)andBritishStandardmethods(Yaragal,2006).Thesemethodshavesomecommonthreadsinarrivingatproportionsbuttheirmethodofcalculationisdifferent.Alltheseexistingmethodsofmixdesignsufferfrom
 
 Assessmentofsuitabilityofexistingmixdesignmethodsofnormalconcretefordesigninghighperformance concretemixes PopatD.Kumbhar,PraneshB.Murnal
 InternationalJournalofCivilandStructuralEngineeringVolume3Issue12012
159oneormorelimitations.TheIndianStandards(IS)codeandACImethoddonottakeintoaccounttheadditionofsupplementarycementitiousmaterialssuchasflyash,microsilica,groundgranulatedblastfurnaceslag(ggbfs),metakaolinetc.However,theDOEmethod,aBritishmethodofconcretemixdesign,utilizesBritishtestdataandcanbeusedforconcretecontainingflyashorggbfs(Shetty,2008).Noneofthesemethodsprovidethetraditionalcurvesexpressingtherelationshipbetweenw/cratioandthestrengthbytestingconcretesmadewithchemicaladmixtures(RamaraoGandSeshagiriRao,2005
)
.OnthecontraryHPCusuallycontainsbothpozzolanicandchemicaladmixtures.IthasbeenanestablishedfactthatHPCmixescanbepreparedwithouttheuseofmineraladmixturesbutcannotbewithoutthechemicaladmixtures(Shridhar,2002).ThemixdesignofNSCisbasedprimarilyonthew/cratiolawfirstproposedbyAbramsin1918(ShahS.andAhmadS.,1984).However,forhighstrengthconcretes,allthecomponentsoftheconcretemixturearepushedtotheirlimits.IncaseofHPCtherearemanyotherfactorstoconsiderandhenceselectionofingredientsandtheirappropriateproportionsisdifficult.Alsoitisuneconomicalandtimeconsumingtousethetraditionalempiricalapproachofmakingalternativetrialmixesofallpossiblecombinationstoarriveattheoptimummix.Thus,theproceduresofexistingmixdesignmethodsthatarecommonlyadoptedfordesigningNSCmixescannotbedirectlyappliedfordesigningHPCmixes(Gopalkrishnanetal.,2001
)
.AliteraturesurveyindicatesthatseveralresearchershavedesignedHPCmixesbyusingmixdesignmethodsofNSCorbycombiningprinciplesofoneormoremethods.However,suitabilityofexistingmixdesignmethodssuchasISCode,DOE,ACIetcfordesigningHPCmixesgivingnecessarymodificationshavenotbeenreportedsofar.Therefore,anattempthasbeenmadeinthepresentpapertoexaminethesuitabilityoftheseexistingmethodsofNSCfordesigningHPCmixesandsuggestnecessarymodificationsrequiredinthesemethodstosatisfythedesiredrequirementsofHPC.ThepresentpaperalthoughrestrictsitsstudyforM50gradeconcrete(whichisperceivedtobethelowestgradeamongHPCgrades)forrestrictingthelengthofthepaper,thebroadconclusionsdrawnarefoundtobevalidforhighergradesofconcreteaswell.
2.MeritsandDemeritsofExistingMixDesignMethods2.1ISCodeMethod(IS:10262-1982)
TheISCodemethodconsidersthenormalandhighstrengthmixesdifferently.Inthismethodthequantitiesoffineandcoarseaggregatearedeterminedbyusingtheequationbasedonspecificgravitiesofingredients.OneofthegoodfeaturesofISCodemethodisthatitincorporatesthestrengthofcementinmixdesignprocedurebywhichitispossibletoeffecteconomyinconcretemix(Shetty,2008).TheIScodemethodsuffersfromthefollowinglimitations.1.
Themethodsuggests35%ofsandcontentforzoneIIsandbyabsolutevolumewithacorrectionof+1.5%forzoneIand-1.5%forzoneIII.Thesezoneshavewiderangeofvariabilityandthiscorrectionisnotsufficienttoattainacohesivemix.2.
Eventhoughsandcontentisadjustedforlowerwatercementratio,thereisnodirectadjustmentforcementcontent.AmixinwhichcementcontenthasbeenloweredbyuseofSuperplasticizersmayrequirehighersandcontenttoimprovecohesion.
 
 Assessmentofsuitabilityofexistingmixdesignmethodsofnormalconcretefordesigninghighperformance concretemixes PopatD.Kumbhar,PraneshB.Murnal
 InternationalJournalofCivilandStructuralEngineeringVolume3Issue12012
1603.
ThemethodgivesdifferenttablesforfindingcontentsofsandforconcretesuptoM35andaboveM35grade.Thereissuddenchangeinsandcontentfrom35%to25%inthesetableswhenshiftingfromM35gradetoM40gradeconcrete.4.
Themethodconsiderscompactionfactorasmeasureofworkabilitytocalculatewaterdemand.However,therevisedIS456(IS:456-2000)hasexcludedcompactionfactorasameasureofworkability.5.
Thequantitiesoffineandcoarseaggregatesarecalculatedbasedonabsolutevolumesconcept.Thewetdensityofconcreteiftheoreticallycalculatedonthebasisofabsolutevolumeconcept,maynotmatchwiththatactuallymeasured.6.
Themethoddoesnotincludeanadjustmentinfineaggregatecontentfordifferentworkabilitylevels.
2.2Departmentofenvironmentmethod(DOE)
(SP23:1982)
TheDOEmethodovercomessomelimitationsofISCodemethod.IncaseofDOEmethod,fineaggregatecontentisafunctionof600micronpassingfractionofsandandnotthezoneofsand.The600micronpassingfractionhasbecomeknownasthemostcriticalparametergoverningthecohesionandworkabilityofconcretemix.Itiswellacceptedthathighertheworkabilitygreateristhefineaggregaterequiredtomaintaincohesionofmix.Thewatercontentperm
3
ofconcreteisrecommendedbasedonworkabilityrequirementgivenintermsofslumpandVeeBeetime.Themethodrecommendsdifferentwatercontentsforcrushedanduncrushedaggregates.TheDOEmethodcanbeusedforconcretecontainingflyashorggbfs(Neville,2008).TheDOEmethodsuffersfromfollowinglimitations.1.
FineaggregatescontentworkedoutfromDOEmethodisoftenonhighersideresultinginoversandymixes.2.
Fineaggregatecontentcannotbeadjustedfordifferentcementcontents.3.
TheDOEmethoddoesn’thaveaspecificmethodofcombiningquantitiesofdifferentsizeaggregates.4.
Nospecificgraphsareavailableformaximumsizeofaggregatesbetween20mmand40mm.
2.3ModifiedACImethod
TheACImethod(asperACI211.1-1991)isbasedondeterminingthecoarseaggregatecontentconsideringdryroddedcoarseaggregatebulkdensityandfinenessmodulusofsand,whichhasbeenmodifiedbyP.C.Aitcin(Aitcin,1998).Themodifiedmethodisbasicallyproposedformakingnonair-entrainedHPCs.Itisacombinationofempiricalresultsandmathematicalcalculationsbasedonabsolutevolumemethod.Thewatercontributedbysuperplasticizerisalsoconsideredaspartofthemixingwater.Ithasbeenobservedthatthismethodgivesahigherdosageofsuperplasticizer,causingtheconcretemixtoundergoseveresegregationandalsoobjectionabledelayinsettingandhardening.
3.ExperimentalInvestigations
TheconcreteofgradeM50isconsideredfortheexperimentalprogram.ThevariousmaterialsusedinmakingM50gradeHPCmixesalongwiththeirpropertieshavebeentabulatedinTable1.

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