disproportionate utilization of BCAA, glutamate, and glutamine as compared to otherAAs suggested that their metabolism occurred toward specific metabolicrequirements, possibly energy production. When Krebs cycle metabolism wasinvestigated using individual AAs, glucose, and short chain fatty acids, leucine andvaline did not contribute to the flux of Krebs cycle intermediates. Conversely,
-ketoglutarate flux originated mainly from glutamate, and to a lesser extent fromglutamine. Though glucose was metabolized to pyruvate and lactate, glucose did notcontribute to Krebs cycle intermediates. Overall, these results indicated that glutamateplays an important role in energy metabolism, and in insuring replenishment of Krebscycle intermediates that leave the cycle via cataplerosis. Yet, the results raised newquestions that ought to be addressed in future studies. The fate of glutamine carbon,the metabolic significance of leucine and valine deamination, and the role of glucosepartial catabolism to lactate need to be investigated.