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Regulation of Macro Nutrient Metabolism by the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants

Regulation of Macro Nutrient Metabolism by the Gastrointestinal Tract of Ruminants

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Published by: Pankaj gupta on Jul 07, 2009
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ABSTRACTTitle of Document: REGULATION OF MACRONUTRIENTMETABOLISM BY THE GASTROINTESTINALTRACT OF RUMINANTSSamer Wassim El-Kadi, Doctor of Philosophy, 2006Directed By: Assistant Professor Brian J. Bequette, Department oAnimals SciencesWe set out to test the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminantanimals catabolizes amino acids (AAs) preferentially. We sought to determinewhether this catabolism represents an obligate requirement, and whether thisrequirement stems from the need to generate energy or support other metabolicdemands. The aim was to determine the composition of macronutrients (AAs, shortchain fatty acids, and glucose) utilized by the GIT, and the influence of general andspecific nutrient supplies on their routes of metabolism. Increasing protein supply tothe small intestine did not alter the total amount of glucose removed by the GITindicating, that glucose removal and therefore utilization is obligatory. In contrast, thenet removal of AAs occurred at a constant proportion of arterial and luminal supplies.This translated to larger amounts of AAs removed from blood circulation, and fromthe lumen of the small intestine in response to increased small intestinal and bloodsupplies. In this respect, the net absorption of branched chain AAs was, unlike otheressential AAs lower than 100%. Further, glutamate and glutamine net appearanceacross the whole GIT and small intestine was unaffected by protein supply. The
disproportionate utilization of BCAA, glutamate, and glutamine as compared to otherAAs suggested that their metabolism occurred toward specific metabolicrequirements, possibly energy production. When Krebs cycle metabolism wasinvestigated using individual AAs, glucose, and short chain fatty acids, leucine andvaline did not contribute to the flux of Krebs cycle intermediates. Conversely,
-ketoglutarate flux originated mainly from glutamate, and to a lesser extent fromglutamine. Though glucose was metabolized to pyruvate and lactate, glucose did notcontribute to Krebs cycle intermediates. Overall, these results indicated that glutamateplays an important role in energy metabolism, and in insuring replenishment of Krebscycle intermediates that leave the cycle via cataplerosis. Yet, the results raised newquestions that ought to be addressed in future studies. The fate of glutamine carbon,the metabolic significance of leucine and valine deamination, and the role of glucosepartial catabolism to lactate need to be investigated.
REGULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT METABOLISM BY THEGASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF RUMINANTS.BySamer Wassim El-KadiDissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of theUniversity of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy2006Advisory Committee:Assistant Professor Brian J. Bequette, ChairProfessor Richard ErdmanProfessor Richard KohnDr. Ranson L. Baldwin, VIProfessor Phyllis Moser-Veillon

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