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Cisco CCNA Discovery 2 Hoofdstuk 6

Cisco CCNA Discovery 2 Hoofdstuk 6

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Published by: LaPingvino on Jul 08, 2009
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CCNA Discovery - Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP
6 Routing
6.0 Chapter Introduction
6.0.1 Introduction
Page 1:6.0.1 - Introduction
Small business networks rely on routing to connect their users with the Internet. As these networksgrow, routing becomes an integral piece of the LAN infrastructure as well.Dynamic routing protocols enable routers to react quickly when links fail, or previously used routes become unavailable. Network engineers and technicians select, configure, and troubleshoot routing operation within theLAN and WAN.After completion of this chapter, you should be able to:Describe the purpose and function of dynamic routing and the protocols used to implement it.Configure RIP v2 dynamic routing using the Cisco I O S.Describe the use of exterior routing protocols across the Internet.Enable BGP on a customer site router.
6.1 Enabling Routing Protocols
6.1.1 Routing Basics
Page 1:
As the internal network of an organization grows, it may be necessary to break up the network intomultiple smaller networks for security or organizational purposes. This division is oftenaccomplished by subnetting the network. Subnetting requires a router to pass traffic from onesubnet to another.To direct messages across networks so that they arrive at the correct destination, a router uses atable containing all the locally connected networks and the interfaces that are connected to eachnetwork. Each interface belongs to a different IP network.A router determines which route, or path, to use by looking up the information stored in its routingtable. The routing table also contains information about routes that the router can use to reachremote networks which are not locally attached.
Routes can be statically assigned to a router by an administrator, or routes can be dynamically givento the router by another router via a routing protocol.
6.1.1 - Routing Basics
The animation depicts a router using a routing table to decide the best route for a packet.There are several interconnected routers, which a packet must travel through to get to itsdestination. Routing tables at each router along the way are used to forward packets from a localhost on Network 1 to a remote host on Network 3.Host H1 says, "I want to send a message to H3 on Network 3."The packet says, "Network 3 is not a directly connected network. I will take my default route!"Router R6 says, "Network 3 is directly connected to me, so I will deliver the packet."
Page 2:
A router uses a routing table to determine where to send packets. The routing table contains a set of routes. Each route describes which gateway or interface the router uses to reach a specifiednetwork.A route has four main components:
Destination value
Subnet mask 
Gateway or interface address
Route costor metricWhen a router receives a packet, the router examines the destination IP address in that packet todetermine where to forward the packet. The router then looks for a matching destination value inthe routing table.Each destination value within the route table refers to a destination network address. Thedestination IP address within a packet, however, consists of both a network address and a hostaddress. For the router to determine if its table contains a route to the destination network, it mustdetermine there is a match between the IP network address and one of the destination values in therouting table. This means the router must determine which bits of the IP address represent thenetwork and which bits represent the host.The router looks up the subnet mask assigned to each potential route in the table. The router applieseach subnet mask to the destination IP address in the packet. The resulting network address is thencompared to the network address of the route in the table. If a match is found, the packet is
forwarded out the correct interface or to the appropriate gateway. If the network address matchesmore than one route in the routing table, the router uses the route that has the most specific, or longest, network address match.Sometimes there is more than one route to the destination network. In this case, routing protocolrules determine which route the router uses.If none of the route entries match, the router directs the message to the gateway specified by itsdefault route, if a default route is configured. Otherwise, the packet is simply dropped.
6.1.1 - Routing Basics
The diagram depicts a network, and shows the following three processes used to determine the patha packet takes to get to its destination: applies subnet mask, examines routing table, and forwards packets.The following information is used for all processes:Gateway of last resort is to network /16 [1 /0] via /16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masksS172.16.236.0 /24 -1 /0= via /16 [1 /0] via /24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 /0C /24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 /1172.22.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnetsS [1 /0] via* /0 [1 /0] via 1 - Applies Subnet Mask Router applies each subnet mask to the destination IP address to find the network address with thelongest match. longest match: 2 - Examines Routing TableRouter compares the resulting network address to the routing table entries.S /24 [1 /0] via 3 - Forwards PacketRouter sends the packet out the correct interface to reach the next-hop address for the destinationnetwork.C /24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0 /1
Page 3:
On a Cisco router, the Cisco IOS command
show ip route
displays the routes in the routing table.Several types of routes can appear in the routing table.

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