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Table Of Contents

1.1.Scope
1.2Terminology
1.3Relationship to Previous EPA Documents
1.4Wetlands Treatment Database
1.7.1Appropriate Technology for Small Communities
1.7.2Policy and Permitting Issues
1.7.3Other Factors
1.8Use of This Manual
1.9References
2.1Understanding Constructed Wetlands
2.2Ecology of Constructed Wetlands
2.3.1Wetland Microbial Ecology
2.3.2Algae
2.3.3Emergent Herbaceous Plants
2.3.4Plant Nutrition and Growth Cycles
2.4Fauna of Constructed Wetlands
2.5.1Primary and Ancillary Functions of Constructed Wetlands
2.5.2Wildlife Access Controls
2.5.3Mosquito Habitat Controls
2.6Human Health Concerns
2.7On-site System Applications
2.8Related Aquatic Treatment Systems
2.9Frequently Asked Questions
2.10Glossary
2.11References
3.1Introduction
3.2.1Description and Measurement
3.2.2.1Discrete and Flocculant Settling
3.2.2.2Filtration/Interception
3.2.2.3Resuspension
3.2.3Suspended Solids in Vegetated Submerged Beds
3.3.1Description and Measurement
3.3.2.1Physical Separations of Organic Matter
3.3.2.2Biological Conversions of Organic Matter
3.3.3Organic Matter in Vegetated Submerged Beds
3.4.1Description and Measurement
3.4.2.1Physical Separation of Nitrogen Species
3.4.2.2Biologically Mediated Transformations of Nitrogen Species
3.4.2.3Nitrogen in Free Water Surface Wetlands
3.4.3Nitrogen in Vegetated Submerged Beds
3.5.1Description and Measurement
3.5.2.1Physical/Chemical Separations of Phosphorus
3.5.2.2Biological Transformations of Phosphates
3.5.2.3FWS System Reactions—Phosphate
3.5.3Phosphorus in Vegetative Submerged Beds
3.6.1Description and Measurement
3.6.2Fate in Constructed Wetlands
3.8.2Status of Wetland Modeling
3.9References
4.1.1Introduction
4.1.2Range of Operating Conditions and Performance
4.1.3BOD Performance
4.1.4TSS Performance
4.1.5.1 TKN Performance
4.1.5.2 Denitrification
4.1.5.3Ammonia Nitrogen Performance
4.1.5.4Other Nitrogen Performance
4.1.6Total Phosphorus Performance
4.1.7Fecal Coliform Performance
4.1.8Metals & Other Particulate-Oriented Pollutants
4.1.9Stochastic Variability
4.2.1Wetland Water Balance
4.2.2Wastewater Inflow
4.2.3Precipitation, Snowmelt, and Catchment Runoff
4.2.4Wastewater Outflow
4.2.5Evapotranspiration
4.2.6Infiltration and Berm Losses
4.2.7Wetland Volume
4.3.1.1Water Depth
4.3.1.2Volume
4.3.1.3Wetland Porosity or Void Fraction
4.3.1.4Average Wastewater Flow
4.3.1.5Hydraulic Retention Time
4.3.1.6Hydraulic Loading Rate
4.3.2.1Ideal versus Actual Flow in a FWS Constructed Wetland
4.3.2.2Hydraulic Gradient in a FWS Constructed Wetland
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2Existing Models
4.4.3Areal Loading Rates
4.5.1Design Sizing and Performance Mechanisms
4.5.2Total Suspended Solids Removal Design Considerations
4.5.3Design Examples
4.6.1.1Site Topography
4.6.1.2Aspect (length to width) Ratio
4.6.1.3 Wetland configuration
4.6.1.4Multiple cells
4.6.2.1Open water/Vegetation ratio
4.6.2.2Inlet Settling Zone
4.6.2.3Inlet/Outlet Structures
4.6.2.4Baffles
4.6.2.5Recirculation
4.6.3Pretreatment Requirements
4.7.1Site Topography and Soils
4.7.2Impermeable Liner Materials
4.7.3 Soil Substrates for Plants
4.7.4Internal Drainage and Flexible Piping
4.8Summary of Design Recommendations
4.9 References
5.2.1.3Nutrient and Metals Removal by Wetland Plants
5.2.1.4Plant-Supplied Carbon Sources for Denitrification
5.2.1.5Plant Role in Thermal Insulation
5.2.1.6Plant Impact on Hydraulic Conductivity (Clogging) and Detention Time
5.2.2.1BOD and TSS
5.2.2.2.Nitrogen
5.3.1Evapotransporation and Precipitation Impacts
5.3.2Water Level Estimation
5.3.3Hydraulic Retention Time and Contaminant Dispersion
5.4.1Introduction
5.4.2TSS and BOD Removal for Septic Tank and Primary Effluents
5.4.3Nutrient Removal for Septic Tank and Primary Effluents
5.4.4TSS, BOD and Nutrient Removal for Pond Effluents
5.4.6Metals Removal for All Types of Wastewater
5.4.7Pathogen Removal for All Types of Wastewater
5.5.1Media Size and Hardness
5.5.2Slopes
5.5.3Inlet and Outlet Piping
5.5.4System Depth, Width and Length
5.6.8Determine the Media Depth
5.6.9Determine Number of VSB Cells
5.7On-site Applications
5.8Alternative VSB Systems
5.9References
6.1Introduction
6.2.1.1Basin Layout
6.2.1.2Site Preparation
6.2.1.3Berms
6.2.1.4Liners
6.2.1.5Inlet and Outlet Structures
6.2.1.6Media
6.2.2.1Species Selection and Sources
6.2.2.2Planting
6.3.1Free Water Surface Wetlands
6.3.2Vegetated Submerged Bed Systems
6.4.1Water Level and Flow Control
6.4.2Maintenance of Flow Uniformity
6.4.3Vegetation Management
6.4.4Odor Control
6.4.5Control of Nuisance Pests and Insects
6.4.6Maintenance of Berms and Dikes
6.5Monitoring
6.6References
7.1Introduction
7.2.1Total Construction Costs
7.2.2Geotechnical Investigations
7.2.3Clearing and Grubbing
7.2.4Excavation and Earthwork
7.2.5Liner Costs
7.2.6Media Costs
7.2.7Plants and Planting Costs
7.2.8Cost of Inlet and Outlet Structures
7.2.9Piping, Equipment, and Fencing Costs
7.2.10Miscellaneous Costs
7.2.11Construction Cost Summary
7.3Operation and Maintenance Costs
7.4References
8.1.1.1Background
8.1.1.2Financial Arrangements
8.1.1.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.1.1.4Performance History
8.1.1.5Lessons Learned
8.1.2.1Background
8.1.2.2Financial Arrangements
8.1.2.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.1.2.4Performance History
8.1.2.5Lessons Learned
8.1.3.1Background
8.1.3.2Financial Arrangements
8.1.3.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.1.3.4Performance History
8.1.3.5Lessons Learned
8.1.4.1Background
8.1.4.2Financial Arrangements
8.1.4.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.1.4.4Performance History
8.1.4.5Lessons Learned
8.2.1.1Background
8.2.1.2 Financial Arrangements
8.2.1.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.2.1.4 Performance History
8.2.1.5Lessons Learned
8.2.2.1Background
8.2.2.2Financial Arrangements
8.2.2.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.2.2.4Performance History
8.2.2.5Lessons Learned
8.2.3.1Background
8.2.3.2Financial Arrangements
8.2.3.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.2.3.4Performance History
8.2.3.5Lessons Learned
8.2.4.1Background
8.2.4.2Financial Arrangements
8.2.4.3Construction and Start-up Procedures
8.2.4.4Performance History
8.2.4.5Lessons Learned
8.3.1Design
8.3.2Mechanisms and Processes
8.3.3Vegetation
8.3.4Treatment Effectiveness
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Environmental Protection Agency: 625r99010

Environmental Protection Agency: 625r99010

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Published by: Environmental Documents on Jan 27, 2008
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