Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
ICICI158P - Muntini, Measuring the Quality of Black Tea

ICICI158P - Muntini, Measuring the Quality of Black Tea

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,099|Likes:
Published by Houw Liong The
Measuring Quality of Black Tea From Theaflavins Analysis
Using Secondary Measurement
Melania S. Muntini1), Yul Y. Nazaruddin2), The Houw Liong 3), Lienda Handojo4)
1) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia
2) Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
3) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: +62-22-2508138
E-mail: melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id, yul@tf.itb.ac.id
Measuring Quality of Black Tea From Theaflavins Analysis
Using Secondary Measurement
Melania S. Muntini1), Yul Y. Nazaruddin2), The Houw Liong 3), Lienda Handojo4)
1) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia
2) Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
3) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: +62-22-2508138
E-mail: melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id, yul@tf.itb.ac.id

More info:

Published by: Houw Liong The on Jul 08, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

07/17/2010

pdf

text

original

 
 
International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia
117
Measuring Quality of Black Tea From Theaflavins AnalysisUsing Secondary Measurement
Melania S. Muntini
1)
, Yul Y. Nazaruddin
2)
, The Houw Liong
3)
, Lienda Handojo
4)
 
1)
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia
2)
Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
3)
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
4)
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi BandungJl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132
,
IndonesiaPhone/Fax: +62-22-2508138E-mail:melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id,yul@tf.itb.ac.id 
 Abstract
– Theaflavins (Tf) is a key compound that significantly contributes in the quality of black tea. It undergoes a series of chemical changes duringthe fermentation process. Fermentation is one of themost critical processes in black tea processing.There are many parameters that significantlyinfluenced the process including room temperature,thickness of greendhool, and duration of the process. In general, it is difficult to measuretheaflavins directly as it involves some chemicalanalysis and enzymes for pigment. An alternativeapproach, theaflavins is measured indirectly and inferred from easily made process measurements or secondary measurements. This inferential method of measurements employs a scheme which is called avirtual sensor, which is realized by integratingartificial neural networks with the Extended KalmanFilter algorithm. Secondary variables are several parameters of fermentation process and results of color analysis of tea liquid, whereas primaryvariable is Theaflavins. The data for implementingthis proposed technique were obtained byconducting several real-time experiments at black tea factory in Indonesian Tea and Cinchona Research Institute (PPTK Gambung), West Java. Results show how the quality of black tea can beinfered indirectly using the proposed technique.Themean and variance of error between the obtained output of virtual sensor algorithm and the output chemical analysis of theflavins were 1,81 x 10
-4
 and 5,07 x 10
-6 
respectively.
 Keywords
– artificial neural network, black tea, Extended Kalman Filter, indirect measurements,Theaflavins, virtual sensor.
I. INTRODUCTION
 
Black tea is a fermented tea and it is theone of popular beverages in the world.Black tea manufactured is carried out by aseries of processes on fresh tea leaves,involving withering, rolling, fermentation,drying and sieving. Fermentation is one of the most critical processes in black tea processing. During black tea fermentation,an enzymatic oxidation of tea polyphenols,especially tea chatechins takes place,leading to a formation of a series of coloured chemical compounds, amongother, such as Theaflavins (Tfs) thatdetermines the characteristics of the black tea liquors.[1,2,3,6,7,8]. Tfs of the black tea depends on several The parameters thathas significantly effects in the fermentation process, i.e. room temperature, thickness of greendhool, and duration of the process.Understanding the relationship of liquorscolour to black tea quality would beinteresting for development of methods toidentify black tea quality, chemically and physically. In general, it is difficult tomeasure theaflavins directly as it involvessome chemical analysis and enzymes for  pigment. An alternative approach is proposed in this research, in whichtheaflavins is measured indirectly andinferred from easily made processmeasurement or secondary measurement.II. SECONDARY MEASUREMENTSIn the complex process, some variablesmay be easy or hard to be measured. A primary variable is a process variable thathard to be measured, while a secondary
 
 
International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia
118variable is an easier one. The directmeasurement is used to measure secondaryvariables. The secondary variables must berelated to primary variables, because the primary variables are measured indirectlyand inferred from them. This inferentialmethod of measurements employs ascheme that is called secondarymeasurement or virtual sensor[9]. Virtualsensor is realized by integrating Artificial Neural Networks with Extended KalmanFilter (EKF) algorithm. Neural Networksare general tools in modelling nonlinear function since its ability to approximateany nonlinear functions with any desiredaccuracy.The structure of neural networks that isused in this research is restricted to DirectRecurrent Neural Network (DRNN).DRNN structure consisting of three layers,input, hidden and output layer respectively,has been applied in modeling of the process. The neural networks structure of DRNN can be seen in Fig. 1.
W
 j21
Y(n) X 
  j
(n)S
  j
(n)
W
 jk 10
W
 j11
W
 j1b
I
n
(k)
 
Fig. 1. A DRNN structure
It gives the following relation
b j j j N  jk  j
n X n I nS
111110
)1()()(
++=
=
(1)
=
=
 M  j j
n Xjn
021
)()(
(2)
))(()(
nS f n X 
 j j
=
(3)
 where
 I, W, b,
and
 f 
are input, weight athidden layer, weight, bias and activationfunction. Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm is used in training the neuralnetwork because it were proposed in order to deal with the nonlinear systems.Figure 2 illustrates the block diagram of virtual sensor algorithm or secondarymeasurement in measuring of secondaryvariables.
Fig. 2. Structure of secondarymeasurement
Suppose
θ 
represents all trainable parameters of the network (i.e. the weightsand biases), the model can be rewrite asfollows :
)))1( ),(),1(),(()1(
11111
 I  Z  x f  x
ξ θ 
+++=+
(4)
)())((.),()1(
22122
 f  f  x
ξ θ 
+=+
(5)
)()()1(
 Z  Z 
ζ 
+=+
(6)
)()()(
2
v x y
+=
(7)
where weight and biases at hidden andoutput layer are
θ
1
,
θ
2
respectively,
 
{
ξ
1
(t)}and {
ξ
2
(t)} are zero-mean
GaussianWhite Noise
sequence uncorrelated with{v(t)} and with a pre assigned
 positivedefinite
Var[
ζ
(t)] = S(t). Based on
[ ]
 Z  x x x
)()()()(
21
=
, the estimationof 
[ ]
 Z  x x x
)(ˆ)(ˆ)(ˆ)(ˆ
21
=
can beobtained. After linearization, the modelcan be described using the following statemodel
)()()()()1(
G x x
ξ 
+=+
(8)
)()()()(
 x H  y
ν 
+=
(9)where {
ξ
(t)} and {v(t)} are assumed to beuncorrelated zero-mean
Gaussian White Noise
sequences. F(t), G(t), and H(t) are
 
 
International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia
119assumed to be known matrix-valued. TheExtended Kalman Filter procedures toestimate the state are as follows
[ ]
 H P H  R H P
)()1|()()()()1|()(
+=
(10)
)1|()()()1|()|(
=
P H PP
(11)
[ ]
)1|( ˆ)()()( )1|( ˆ)1|( ˆ)1|( ˆ)(ˆ)(ˆ)(ˆ
2121
+=
 x H  y  Z  x x Z  x x
 (12)This paper will show how ExtendedKalman Filter can be applied as secondarymeasurement for theaflavins analysis,which is the one of tea quality indication.III. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTSIII.1. Data collectionsFor the purpose of modelling, a mini-plantof fermentation process has been designedand implemented during the experiment.The research was conducted at IndonesianTea and Cinchona Research Institute(PPTK Gambung), West Java and the tea powder was collected from the black teafactory of this institute. The tea leaf for  processing was obtained from tea plantation of clone Gambung 14-17 at thealtitude of 1400 m. The tea plants wereallowed to overgrow so that it was possibleto pluck up to four leaves and a bud.III.2. Processing of black tea usingorthodox methodTea leaves were heaped in a whiteringthrough to a thickness of about 20 – 35 cmand a constant air flow at hygrometer difference of 1- 2
0
C was maintained for up14 h. The leaves after whitering weresubjected to orthodox rolling for up to 60min in a three-cranck single action roller.The machine rolled leaves were fired at90
0
C for 30 min to obtain black teacontaining about 3% moisture. Greendhollis tea leaves after whitering and rolling proceed before fermentation.III.3. FermentationThe greendholl were fermented in the 1.5 x1 x 1.75 m
3
mini-plant process withtemperature variation between 18 – 26
0
C.The first experiment assumed that thetemperature was about 18
0
C, the secondabout 22
0
C and the third experiment about26
0
C. Duration of fermentation was 5, 20,30 minutes and continues at every 10minutes interval until 150 minutes, each for a greendholl thickness of about 4, 6, 9 and12 cm. The chemical contents of the black tea were investigated after fermentation process with various operation conditionsincluding duration, room temperature andthickness of greendholl. Fermentation process was stopped by drying greendhollin mini-dryer under inlet and outlettemperature of 110
0
C and 90
0
Crespectively.III.4. Theaflavin analysisThe black tea was analyzed by RobertSmith method [8] to obtain Tf. Thismethod applies maximum difference between maximum length visible wave 380nm and 460 nm. Metanol or i-butil metilketon
 
solution was used to dissolveextraction of black tea [6]III.5. ResultsOne indicators of black tea quality is colour quality. Usually colour quality measured by tea tasters with visual inspection.Theaflavins is ones of chemical compoundsthat influenced the black tea quality, particularly in colour quality. Besides, italso influences on liquor and taste. The proposed method that used in the researchis to measure Tf using indirectmeasurement employing an algorithmintegrating Artificial Neural Network withExtended Kalman Filter algorithm. Tf content was analyzed using this algorithm,in which Tf is unmeasured input on virtualsensor. Measurable inputs are several parameters that have significantly effectsduring fermentation process, includingroom temperature, thickness of greendhool,

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
ryuzakis liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->