Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Life Cycle Assessment of wireless BTS to reduce carbon footprints

Life Cycle Assessment of wireless BTS to reduce carbon footprints

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3|Likes:
Published by Singh Tanvir
The combination of more data-hungry devices and
higher service expectations on the part of users has led to
inevitably high global mobile data traffic which in turn
translates in to huge impact on the environment. In order
to analyze and minimize the impact on environment from
whole activities (initial to final process), Life cycle
assessment (LCA) should be used which will help in
achieving carbon credits. Carbon Credits provide an
efficient mechanism to reduce the greenhouse gas
emissions by monetizing the reduction in emissions. In
order to protect ourselves, our economy, and our land
from the adverse effects of climate change, we must
reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse
gases. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the methodology
which can be used to consider carbon footprint or we can
say that considering the impact on CO2 emissions. In this
paper, we have discussed the approach of LCA of
wireless BTS which can help the telecom operators to
reduce the carbon footprints of Wireless mobile
communication networks.
The combination of more data-hungry devices and
higher service expectations on the part of users has led to
inevitably high global mobile data traffic which in turn
translates in to huge impact on the environment. In order
to analyze and minimize the impact on environment from
whole activities (initial to final process), Life cycle
assessment (LCA) should be used which will help in
achieving carbon credits. Carbon Credits provide an
efficient mechanism to reduce the greenhouse gas
emissions by monetizing the reduction in emissions. In
order to protect ourselves, our economy, and our land
from the adverse effects of climate change, we must
reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse
gases. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the methodology
which can be used to consider carbon footprint or we can
say that considering the impact on CO2 emissions. In this
paper, we have discussed the approach of LCA of
wireless BTS which can help the telecom operators to
reduce the carbon footprints of Wireless mobile
communication networks.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Singh Tanvir on Sep 29, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/15/2014

pdf

text

original

 
A
BSTRACT
The combination of more data-hungry devices andhigher service expectations on the part of users has led toinevitably high global mobile data traffic which in turntranslates in to huge impact on the environment. In order to analyze and minimize the impact on environment fromwhole activities (initial to final process), Life cycleassessment (LCA) should be used which will help inachieving carbon credits. Carbon Credits provide anefficient mechanism to reduce the greenhouse gasemissions by monetizing the reduction in emissions. Inorder to protect ourselves, our economy, and our landfrom the adverse effects of climate change, we mustreduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhousegases. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the methodologywhich can be used to consider carbon footprint or we cansay that considering the impact on CO
2
emissions. In this paper, we have discussed the approach of LCA of wireless BTS which can help the telecom operators toreduce the carbon footprints of Wireless mobilecommunication networks.
Keywords: Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Carbon Credit,Life Cycle Assessment.
I
 NTRODUCTION
Rapid and globally untrammeled informationexchange has become an indispensable service in dailylife due to technologically and commercially successful breakthrough of telecommunication facilities. ICT iscontinuously providing innovative products from simplemobile phones to micro-computer chips to the internet.According to ICT 2011, One third of the w
¡¢£¤¥ 
 population is online and 45% of Internet users below theage of 25 [1]. But as per facts and figures from ITU in2013, Mobile-cellular penetration rates stand at 96%globally; 128% in developed countries and 89% indeveloping countries. The current facts also points outthat 2.7 billion people which is almost 40% of the
¦  ¡¢£¤¥ 
population are online. Fig.1 shows the worldwideaggregate mobile traffic. Power hungry devices aregrowing around the world, which are increasing mobiletraffic that in turn affecting the environment. In fact, thecontribution of ICT equipments to the global emission of CO
2
due to manufacture, use and disposal is likely toincrease from present 2% to 3% by 2020 [17]. To analyzethe whole picture Life Cycle Assessment is requiredwhich includes CAPEX and OPEX i.e. CapitalExpenditure and Operating Expenditure respectively. For instance, presently
§¨©  ¤¥¡  ¦  ¡£¥¥¢ 
Generators and Battery as a backup. Thus, Life CycleAssessment is needed in order to identify and to reducethe impact occurring on environment.To analyze, interpret and improve the environmental performance of BTS, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) isincreasingly recognized as one promising analytical tool[18].In this paper, we have discussed the approach of LCA of wireless BTS which can help the telecomoperators to reduce the carbon footprints of Wirelessmobile communication networks.
Fig.1. Worldwide Aggregate Mobile Traffic [2].
C
ARBON FOOTPRINTS AND
M
OBILE
C
OMMUNICATION
The term Carbon Credit refers to one metric ton of carbon dioxide which is removed from the atmosphere or is kept away not to enter atmosphere from some sources[3]. Carbon finance is the term used for Carbon Credit tohelp finance GHG (Green House Gas) reduction projects.This came into being during the formation of KyotoProtocol (KP) [4-5].
Life Cycle Assessment of Wireless BTS to reduceCarbon Footprints
A.Kuma
1, 4
, T.Singh
2
,R.Khanna
3
,and Dr. Y.Liu
4
1
JNV Theog, Shimla, HP(
 India
)
2
IET Bhaddal Technical Campus, Ropar, Punjab(
 India
)
3
Department of ECE, Desh Bhagat University, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab(
 India
)
4
College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu(
China
)
!"#$%&'(%)&01%)231%4'('%5'1%62&'(%)&07'8%'(9@0%A'7'21B0%931C%&(0'D)%E8F'(90%9851%1F0'D 
 
Carbon Credits are very essential in order to combatwith global environment concern and to promote greencommunication. Under the Kyoto Protocol industrializedcountries have agreed to reduce their collective emissionsof greenhouse gases by 5.2% by 2008-2012 compared tothe year 1990 (however, compared to the emissions levelsexpected by 2012 prior to the Protocol, this limitationrepresents a 29% cut). The target in Europe is an 8%reduction overall with a target for CO
2
emissions to fall by 20% by 2020 [6]. Fig. 2 shows Total carbon footprint per average subscription.
Fig.2. Total carbon footprint per average subscription [10].
According to white paper published by Ericsson,Annual CO
2
footprint of average mobile subscriber isaround 25Kg. This value is comparable to driving a car on the motorway for one hour, or running a 5W lamp for ayear [11]. Now, Mobile Operators are focusing onenergy and carbon footprints. Total energy per unit traffichas declined by approximately 20% and energy per connection has declined by 5%, which indicates the progress of industries in order to reduce greenhouse gasemissions [7]. Fig. 3 shows Energy Consumption bymobile networks worldwide.
Fig. 3.Energy Consumption by mobile networks [7]
.According to GSMA, by 2010 all mobile networksaround the globe consumed 120 terawatt hours (TWh) of energy in the form of electricity and diesel, resulting inenergy costs of $13 billion and responsible for 70 metrictonne (Mt) CO
2
emission. Almost 80 TWh of the energyconsumption was from grid electricity, and just over 40TWh was from the calorific value of the diesel used to power generators used in off-grid and unreliable gridlocations. In fact the diesel generators used in the process,have an efficiency of 20% only.L
IFE
C
YCLE
A
SSESSMENT OF
BTS(M
OBILE
C
OMMUNICATION
)There is tremendous increase in development of ICT(information and communication technology) by virtue of which it becomes the major sources of world energyconsumption [12-14]. Life Cycle Assessment is veryuseful measurement technique in order to analyze the product/services which contribute to global warming.Various environmental aspects can be analyzed using lifecycle assessment.Life Cycle Assessment refers to the life cycleactivities of particular product [8]. Fig. 4 shows presentand required scenario.
Fig. 4. Present and Required Scenario [9].
In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), whole life cycle of given product is considered which means production, useand end-life treatment is taken into account [19]. LCAcan be divided into following two sections:
 A.Life cycle inventory (LCI)
Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) studies the use of material,energy and resources.Amount of energy and material isanalyzed at each stage and is taken as input. LCI includesoperation of BTS hardware (cooling and power methods),manufacturing of mobile phones, site material used atBTS and different activities like vehicles, stores andoffices [20]. These can be discussed in following section:
a. Hardware functionality
During peak hours, all time slots are busy and power transmitted is high in order to provide better coverage,quality and capacity. But, lot of power goes unusedduring the time when traffic is low. So, in that situation,concept of sleep scheduling can be implemented.
b.Software Functionality
During the time when maximum time slots areunused, BTS power reduction can be activated with thehelp of some algorithms.
!"#$%&'(%)&01%)231%4'('%5'1%62&'(%)&07'8%'(9@0%A'7'21B0%931C%&(0'D)%E8F'(90%9851%1F0'D 
 
c. Significance of Architecture
Architecture should be easy to place and build withless running and maintenance cost. Also, it should haveless impact on environment.
 B.Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)
Output of LCI is fed to LCIA. LCIA is defined as the
H¥IPIQR¢S¥¥¥¥TUT£U£¡¥U£  
and evaluating the importance of the potential
V¡TU¢TRU¥I¡£RU¥¥UTWX©`  
14044:2006). Now, by implementing various techniques mentionedin previous section, LCI can be effective in reducing power consumption as elimination of long feeder cablesand active cooling. Another important aspect is to reduceCO
2
emission which can be easily achieved by abovementioned practices.Apart from these approaches, following practices can be useful in achieving energy optimization in mobilecommunication:
x
 Network should consist of only few sites whilemaintaining desired coverage, capacity and quality.
x
Energy efficiency should be optimized whether wetalk about whole site or particular product
x
Use of renewable energy sources should be promotedwhich includes solar, wind, fuel cell, etc.Transition is required toward renewable energy toachieve the energy efficiency and environmentalsustainability [15]. To safeguard the interests of futuregenerations, Sustainable Development is must [16]. Inshort, fig. 5 truly explain the factors contributingsustainable energy.
Fig. 5. Factors contributing Sustainable Energy.
L
IFE
C
YCLE
A
SSESSMENT OF
BTS:P
ROS AND
C
ONS
LCA can be used as a tool to analyze the variouseffects of any product or service on environment. As it isa standardized method, it provides the decision making process by helping government to define a policy for  public. LCA is not without any cons. LCA isgeographically dependent, results changes with change inarea and analysis of whole parameters is needed to prepare a data. Moreover, an interest of stakeholders also plays an important role as they have different views longthe supply chain at a horizontal and vertical level.C
ONCLUSION
Carbon credit is still a mystery for a layman. In order to achieve environmental sustainability and energyoptimization, mass awareness is needed. Network operators are facing energy challenges and are startingscrutinizing their responsibilities towards environmental problems by conducting life cycle assessment techniques.LCA represents a promising alternative to analyze, tointerpret and essentially to adjust the environmental performance of telecommunication BTS.
EFERENCES
[1]ITU, The World in 2011,
 ICT Facts and Figures
,[On-line]. Available: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/material/ICTFactsFigures2011.pdf.[2]Chris Pearson,
The Mobile Broadband Evolution
, 4GAmericas, [Online] Available:http://www.4gamericas.org/UserFiles/file/Presentations/2013/Chris%20Pearson%20Mobile%20Broadband%20Evolution%20Feb%208%202013%20FINAL.pdf.[3]
Carbon Credits in India
cdefghipeqifdrstiuuvw
February, 2007, [Online] Available: www.nswai.com[4]
xyuwsuyd
Carbon Credit And Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
cdwhyyw
http://www.carbonoffsetsdaily.com/news-channels/indiacarbonmarketnews/carbon-credit-and-clean-development-mechanism-cdm-10574.htm[5]Nirmal Bang,
Carbon credits are an important way of mitigating the growth of greenhouse gases
, November 2009, [On-line] Available.http://www.stockmarketsreview.com/extras/carbon_credits _20091117_1654/[6]Schneider Electric,
Unlocking Energy Efficiency
, WhitePaper, [Online]. Available: http://www.schneider-electric.com/sites/corporate/en/support/white- papers/unlocking-energy-efficiency.page[7]GSMA,
 Mobile's Green Manifesto
, 2012, [On-line].Available: http://www.gsma.com/publicpolicy/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Green-Manifesto-2012.pdf [8]Ericsson,
 Design for Environment 
, [On-line]. Available:http://www.ericsson.com/res/thecompany/docs/corporate-responsibility/2009/dfe_information.pdf [9]Ericsson,
Sustainability creating business opportunities
,[On-line]. Available:http://archive.ericsson.net/service/internet/picov/get?DocNo=10/28701-FGB101108&Lang=EN&HighestFree=Y[10]Jens Malmodin, Dag Lunden,
 Life cycle assessment of  ICT networks and primary subscription services inSweden
, September 2011, [On-line]. Available:http://www.dtu.dk/upload/norlca/malmodin%20%26%20lunden.pdf [11]Ericsson,
Sustainable energy use in mobilecommunications
, White Paper, August 2007, [On.line].Available:http://www.connectedurbandevelopment.org/downloads/download/sustainable-energy-use-in-mobile-communications-aug-2007[12]Tanvir Singh, Amit Kumar, Dr. Yunfei Liu,
 A Detailed Study on Fuel Cell Market: A Step Towards EnergySustainability in ICT 
, International Journal of Research inMechanical Engineering and Technology, IJRMET Vol. 3,Issue 1, November - April 2013.[13]White Paper,
jklmnook    okjkomjmjkomb 
, Motorola, [Online]
!"#$%&'(%)&01%)231%4'('%5'1%62&'(%)&07'8%'(9@0%A'7'21B0%931C%&(0'D)%E8F'(90%9851%1F0'D 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->