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Chien Tranh Bien Gioi Viet Trung 1979

Chien Tranh Bien Gioi Viet Trung 1979

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Published by: HSK on Jul 08, 2009
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Page1 of16
Chi\u1ebfntranh bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t - Trung, 1979
M\u1ee5cl\u1ee5c (Wikipedia)
1 T\u00eang\u1ecdi
2 B\u1ed1ic\u1ea3nh
2.1 Quan h\u1ec7 Vi\u1ec7t Nam - TrungQu\u1ed1c

2.2 Xung\u0111\u1ed9t khuv\u1ef1c
3 M\u1ee5c\u0111\u00edch v\u00e0 m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c
4 T\u01b0\u01a1ng quan l\u1ef1c l\u01b0\u1ee3ng thamchi\u1ebfn

5 Di\u1ec5nbi\u1ebfn

5.1 Chu\u1ea9nb\u1ecb
5.2 Giai\u0111o\u1ea1n1
5.3 Giai\u0111o\u1ea1n2
5.4 R\u00fatqu\u00e2n

6 Chi\u1ebfn d\u1ecbch d\u00e2nv\u1eadnc\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c
7 Ph\u1ea3n\u1ee9ng qu\u1ed1c t\u1ebf
8 K\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn

8.1 Th\u01b0\u01a1ng vong v\u00e0 thi\u1ec7t h\u1ea1i
8.2
\u0110\u00e1nhgi\u00e1
8.3 H\u1eaduchi\u1ebfn
9 Ph\u1ea3n\u00e1nh trongv\u0103nngh\u1ec7
9.1 Vi\u1ec7tNam
9.2 TrungQu\u1ed1c
9.2.1 TrungQu\u1ed1c\u0111\u1ea1i l\u1ee5c
9.2.2 H\u1ed3ngK\u00f4ng

10 Ch\u00fath\u00edch
11 Thamkh\u1ea3o
12 Li\u00eank\u1ebftngo\u00e0i

-------------------------------------

Chi\u1ebfntranhbi\u00ean gi\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t - Trung, 1979 l\u00e0m\u1ed9t
cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfnng\u1eafnnh\u01b0ng kh\u1ed1c li\u1ec7t gi\u1eefaTrungQu\u1ed1c
v\u00e0 Vi\u1ec7t Nam, n\u1ed5 rav\u00e0o v\u00e0o ng\u00e0y 17 th\u00e1ng 2n\u0103m
1979 khi TrungQu\u1ed1c\u0111em qu\u00e2n t\u1ea5nc\u00f4ngVi\u1ec7t Nam
tr\u00ean to\u00e0ntuy\u1ebfnbi\u00ean gi\u1edbi gi\u1eefahai n\u01b0\u1edbc. Chi\u1ebfn
tranhbi\u00ean gi\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t - Trungxu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb quan h\u1ec7
c\u0103ng th\u1eb3ng k\u00e9od\u00e0i gi\u1eefahai qu\u1ed1c giav\u00e0 \u00fd\u0111\u1ed3 "d\u1ea1y
choVi\u1ec7t Nam m\u1ed9t b\u00e0i h\u1ecdc" c\u1ee7a\u0110\u1eb7ng Ti\u1ec3uB\u00ecnh,
k\u00e9od\u00e0i trongch\u1eebng m\u1ed9t th\u00e1ng v\u1edbi thi\u1ec7t h\u1ea1i n\u1eb7ng
n\u1ec1 v\u1ec1 ng\u01b0\u1eddi v\u00e0 t\u00e0i s\u1ea3ncho c\u1ea3 hai ph\u00eda. Cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn

k\u1ebft th\u00fac khi TrungQu\u1ed1c ho\u00e0n th\u00e0nh r\u00fat qu\u00e2n v\u00e0o
ng\u00e0y 18 th\u00e1ng 3n\u0103m1979, saukhi chi\u1ebfm\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
c\u00e1c th\u1ecb x\u00e3 L\u1ea1ng S\u01a1n, L\u00e0oCai, Cao B\u1eb1ng, v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1
th\u1ecb tr\u1ea5nv\u00f9ngbi\u00ean. M\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c bu\u1ed9c
Vi\u1ec7t Nam r\u00fat qu\u00e2n kh\u1ecfi Campuchiakh\u00f4ng th\u00e0nh,
nh\u01b0ng cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ec3 l\u1ea1i h\u1eaduqu\u1ea3 l\u00e2u d\u00e0i\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi
n\u1ec1nkinh t\u1ebf Vi\u1ec7t Nam v\u00e0 quan h\u1ec7 c\u0103ng th\u1eb3ng gi\u1eefa
hai n\u01b0\u1edbc. Xung\u0111\u1ed9t v\u0169 trangt\u1ea1i bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi c\u00f2nti\u1ebfp
di\u1ec5nth\u00eam10n\u0103m. H\u01a1n13n\u0103msau, quan h\u1ec7 ngo\u1ea1i
giao Vi\u1ec7t-Trungch\u00ednhth\u1ee9c\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng
h\u00f3a.M\u1ee5c l\u1ee5c [\u1ea9n]

1/ T\u00caN G\u1eccI:

Cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00edaVi\u1ec7t Nam g\u1ecdi l\u00e0Chi\u1ebfntranh
bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi ph\u00edaB\u1eafc, 1979. Ph\u00edaTrungQu\u1ed1c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0
Chi\u1ebfntranh\u0111\u00e1nhtr\u1ea3 t\u1ef1 v\u1ec7 tr\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t Nam
(\u73af \u8d8a\u81ea\u73af \u73af \u73af \u73af\u0110\u1ed1i Vi\u1ec7t t\u1ef1 v\u1ec7 ho\u00e0n k\u00edch chi\u1ebfn)
(tr\u00ean ngh\u0129a r\u1ed9ng l\u00e0ch\u1ec9 xung\u0111\u1ed9t bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t-Trung
trongg\u1ea7nm\u01b0\u1eddi n\u0103mt\u1eeb n\u0103m1979\u0111\u1ebfnn\u0103m1989),
d\u00e2n gian quen g\u1ecdi l\u00e0Chi\u1ebfntranhph\u1ea3nk\u00edch t\u1ef1 v\u1ec7
tr\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t Nam (\u73af \u8d8a\u81ea\u73af \u53cd\u73af \u73af ,\u0110\u1ed1i Vi\u1ec7t t\u1ef1 v\u1ec7
ph\u1ea3nk\u00edch chi\u1ebfn)[4].

Nhi\u1ec1u nh\u00e0 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9ucoi cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfnn\u00e0y l\u00e0m\u1ed9t
ph\u1ea7nc\u1ee7aChi\u1ebfntranh\u0110\u00f4ngD\u01b0\u01a1ng l\u1ea7n3[5]
2/ B\u1ed0I C\u1ea2NH
2.1/ Quan h\u1ec7 Vi\u1ec7t Nam - TrungQu\u1ed1c

Tuy\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ef1 gi\u00fap\u0111\u1ee1 r\u1ea5t l\u1edbnc\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c trong
chi\u1ebfntranh\u0110\u00f4ngD\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u00e0 Chi\u1ebfntranhVi\u1ec7t Nam,
c\u00e1c r\u1ea1nn\u1ee9t trongquan h\u1ec7 ngo\u1ea1i giao gi\u1eefaVi\u1ec7t
Nam D\u00e2n ch\u1ee7 C\u1ed9ng ho\u00e0v\u00e0TrungQu\u1ed1c\u0111\u00e3b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7u
th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7nt\u1eeb n\u0103m1968. H\u00e0N\u1ed9i nh\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u00f9ng l\u00fac

Page2 of16

gi\u1eef m\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7 n\u1ed3ng\u1ea5mv\u1edbi c\u1ea3 Moskva l\u1eabnB\u1eafc
Kinh trongkhi m\u00e2uthu\u1eabn gi\u1eefaLi\u00ean X\u00f4 v\u00e0 Trung
Qu\u1ed1c\u0111\u00e3l\u00ean cao. B\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ed3ng quan\u0111i\u1ec3mgi\u1eefaH\u00e0N\u1ed9i
v\u00e0 B\u1eafc Kinh v\u1ec1 c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfnt\u1ea1i mi\u1ec1n
Nam Vi\u1ec7t Nam tr\u1edf n\u00eanr\u00f5r\u1ec7t. B\u1eafc Kinh mu\u1ed1nl\u1ef1c
l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3nti\u1ebfpt\u1ee5c chi\u1ebfntranhduk\u00edch c\u00f3 gi\u1edbi
h\u1ea1nch\u1ed1ng M\u1ef9, trongkhi H\u00e0N\u1ed9i mu\u1ed1nchi\u1ebfntranh
quy m\u00f4 truy\u1ec1nth\u1ed1ng. Saus\u1ef1 ki\u1ec7nT\u1ebft M\u1eaduTh\u00e2n,
H\u00e0N\u1ed9i b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7u\u0111\u00e0m ph\u00e1n v\u1edbi M\u1ef9, trongkhi\u0111\u00f3 B\u1eafc
Kinh ph\u1ea3n\u0111\u1ed1i.[6]

N\u0103m1972, chuy\u1ebfnth\u0103mc\u1ee7a t\u1ed5ng th\u1ed1ng M\u1ef9 Nixon
t\u1edbi B\u1eafc Kinh v\u00e0 th\u1ecfa thu\u1eadn gi\u1eefaM\u1ef9 v\u00e0 TrungQu\u1ed1c
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c Vi\u1ec7t Nam D\u00e2n ch\u1ee7C\u1ed9ng ho\u00e0xem l\u00e0m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1

ph\u1ea3nb\u1ed9i.[7] N\u0103m1975, trongchuy\u1ebfnth\u0103mB\u1eafc
Kinh, L\u00ea Du\u1ea9nth\u1eb3ng th\u1eebng t\u1eeb ch\u1ed1i\u0111\u01b0aVi\u1ec7t Nam
D\u00e2n ch\u1ee7 C\u1ed9ng ho\u00e0v\u00e0o li\u00ean minhch\u1ed1ng Li\u00ean X\u00f4
c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c, ph\u1ee7 nh\u1eadnquanni\u1ec7mc\u1ee7aTrung
Qu\u1ed1c r\u1eb1ng ch\u1ee7 ngh\u0129ab\u00e0nhtr\u01b0\u1edbng c\u1ee7aLi\u00ean X\u00f4 l\u00e0
m\u1ed1i\u0111e d\u1ecda\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc c\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3nch\u00e2u \u00c1. \u00d4ng
r\u1eddi TrungQu\u1ed1c m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ngt\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c ti\u1ec7c\u0111\u00e1p l\u1ec5 theo
truy\u1ec1nth\u1ed1ng, c\u0169ng kh\u00f4ngk\u00fd th\u1ecfa thu\u1eadnchung.
C\u0169ng trongchuy\u1ebfnth\u0103mn\u00e0y, TrungQu\u1ed1c th\u00f4ng
b\u00e1o r\u1eb1ng s\u1ebd kh\u00f4nggi\u1eef m\u1ee9c vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 nh\u01b0\u0111\u00e3h\u1ee9a
n\u0103m1973.[8] B\u1eafc Kinh b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7u n\u00f3i v\u1ec1 m\u1ed9t Vi\u1ec7t
Nam "h\u1eafc t\u00e2m", "v\u00f4\u01a1n", "ng\u1ea1o ng\u01b0\u1ee3c".[7] Vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3
c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c sau\u0111\u00f3gi\u1ea3mm\u1ea1nh v\u00e0\u0111\u1ebfnn\u0103m
1978 th\u00ec c\u1eaft to\u00e0nb\u1ed9.\u0110i\u1ec1uki\u1ec7n\u0111\u1ea7uti\u00ean Trung
Qu\u1ed1c\u0111\u1eb7t racho Vi\u1ec7t Nam\u0111\u1ec3 n\u1ed1i l\u1ea1i vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 l\u00e0ph\u1ea3i
t\u1eeb ch\u1ed1i t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c kho\u1ea3nvi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 c\u1ee7aLi\u00ean X\u00f4.[9]

Khi Vi\u1ec7t Nam ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng c\u00f3 quan h\u1ec7 ch\u1eb7t ch\u1ebd h\u01a1n
v\u1edbi Li\u00ean X\u00f4, TrungQu\u1ed1c th\u1ea5y m\u00ecnhb\u1ecb\u0111e d\u1ecda t\u1eeb hai
ph\u00eda.\u0110\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi, Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u0169ng\u0111angc\u1ed1 g\u1eafng x\u00e2y
d\u1ef1ng m\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t ch\u1eb7t ch\u1ebd gi\u1eefa 3n\u01b0\u1edbc

\u0110\u00f4ngD\u01b0\u01a1ng trong \u0111\u00f3Vi\u1ec7t Nam gi\u1eef v\u1ecb th\u1ebf \u0111\u1ee9ng
\u0111\u1ea7u. C\u00f9ngv\u1edbi th\u1ef1c t\u1ebfr\u1eb1ng n\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t Nam th\u1ed1ng

nh\u1ea5t\u0111\u00e3tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh m\u1ed9t s\u1ee9c m\u1ea1nh quan tr\u1ecdng trong
v\u00f9ng, l\u00e0m gi\u1ea3m\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c.
Nh\u1eefng\u0111i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y l\u00e0m choTrungQu\u1ed1c lo ng\u1ea1i v\u1ec1
m\u1ed9t "ti\u1ec3ub\u00e1quy\u1ec1n" Vi\u1ec7t Nam[10] v\u00e0 vi\u1ec7c b\u1ecb Li\u00ean X\u00f4
bao v\u00e2y t\u1eeb ph\u00edaNam. M\u1ed9t n\u01b0\u1edbc Campuchiach\u1ed1ng
Vi\u1ec7t Nam\u0111\u00e3tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh m\u1ed9t\u0111\u1ed3ng minhquantr\u1ecdng

\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi TrungQu\u1ed1c.

Quan h\u1ec7 Vi\u1ec7t Nam - Campuchia ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng\u0111i
xu\u1ed1ng, th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7nngay t\u1eeb th\u00e1ng 5n\u0103m1975khi
Khmer\u0110\u1ecf choqu\u00e2n\u0111\u00e1nhchi\u1ebfmc\u00e1c\u0111\u1ea3oPh\u00fa Qu\u1ed1c
v\u00e0 Th\u1ed5 Chu v\u00e0 b\u1eaft\u0111i h\u00e0ng tr\u0103md\u00e2n th\u01b0\u1eddng, l\u00ean
cao tr\u00e0o v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng n\u0103m1977-1978 khi Khmer\u0110\u1ecf
nhi\u1ec1ul\u1ea7n\u0111\u00e1nhs\u00e2u v\u00e0o l\u00e3nhth\u1ed5 Vi\u1ec7t Nam t\u00e0n s\u00e1t
h\u00e0ng ch\u1ee5c ngh\u00ecn d\u00e2nth\u01b0\u1eddng. Trongsu\u1ed1t th\u1eddi gian

\u0111\u00f3v\u00e0c\u1ea3 v\u1ec1 sau, TrungQu\u1ed1c lu\u00f4nl\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3
\u0111\u1eafc l\u1ef1c cho Khmer \u0110\u1ecfv\u1ec1v\u0169kh\u00ed kh\u00ed t\u00e0i c\u0169ng nh\u01b0
c\u1ed1 v\u1ea5nqu\u00e2ns\u1ef1. B\u00eanc\u1ea1nh c\u00e1c n\u1ed7 l\u1ef1c ngo\u1ea1i giao

kh\u00f4ngth\u00e0nh nh\u1eb1mxoa d\u1ecbuc\u0103ng th\u1eb3ng v\u1edbi Trung Qu\u1ed1c v\u00e0 Campuchia[11], Vi\u1ec7t Nam tinr\u1eb1ng Trung Qu\u1ed1c\u0111angs\u1eed d\u1ee5ng Campuchia\u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ea5nc\u00f4ngVi\u1ec7t Nam.[10]

T\u1eeb n\u0103m1973, Li\u00ean Hi\u1ec7pQu\u1ed1c b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7uth\u1ea3o lu\u1eadnv\u1ec1
v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 ch\u1ee7 quy\u1ec1nc\u1ee7ac\u00e1c qu\u1ed1c gia\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi v\u00f9ng
\u0111\u1eb7c qu y\u1ec1nkinh t\u1ebftr\u00ean bi\u1ec3n. Ch\u00ednhph\u1ee7Vi\u1ec7t Nam

D\u00e2n ch\u1ee7 C\u1ed9ng h\u00f2aquy\u1ebft\u0111\u1ecbnh tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1 ch\u1ee7 quy\u1ec1n
v\u1edbi c\u00e1c qu\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea3oHo\u00e0ng Sa v\u00e0 Tr\u01b0\u1eddng Sa d\u1ef1a
theohi\u1ec7p\u01b0\u1edbc Ph\u00e1p-Thanhk\u00ed k\u1ebft n\u0103m1887. V\u1ec1
ph\u00edaTrungQu\u1ed1c, v\u1edbi cu\u1ed9c kh\u1ee7ng ho\u1ea3ng d\u1ea7ul\u1eeda
nh\u1eefng n\u0103m1970n\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0y\u0111\u00e3t\u00ecmki\u1ebfmc\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n
khai th\u00e1c d\u1ea7um\u1ecf tr\u00ean bi\u1ec3n\u0110\u00f4ngs\u00e1t v\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t Nam,
m\u1ed9t h\u00e0nh\u0111\u1ed9ng m\u00e0 theoVi\u1ec7t Nam l\u00e0chi\u1ebfnl\u01b0\u1ee3c
bao v\u00e2y\u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc h\u1ecd.[12] Tranhch\u1ea5pgi\u1eefahai
n\u01b0\u1edbc v\u1ec1 hai qu\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea3o n\u00e0y\u0111\u00e3b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7u ngay t\u1eeb n\u0103m
1975 saukhi Vi\u1ec7t Nam tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1 ch\u1ee7 quy\u1ec1n\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi
hai qu\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea3o n\u00e0y. [13]

(Nam Quan, hay H\u1eefu Ngh\u1ecb Quan n\u0103m 2007, c\u1eeda\u1ea3i n\u1eb1m
t\u1ea1i bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t Nam-Trung qu\u1ed1c)

M\u1ed9t l\u00fd do n\u1eefakhi\u1ebfnc\u0103ng th\u1eb3ng Vi\u1ec7t Nam - Trung
Qu\u1ed1c leo thang\u0111\u00f3l\u00e0v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 Hoa ki\u1ec1ut\u1ea1i Vi\u1ec7t Nam.
Tr\u01b0\u1edbc n\u0103m1975, c\u00f3 kho\u1ea3ng 1,5tri\u1ec7u ng\u01b0\u1eddi g\u1ed1c
Hoa sinh s\u1ed1ng tr\u00ean l\u00e3nhth\u1ed5 Vi\u1ec7t Nam, 15%s\u1ed1ng\u1edf
ph\u00edaB\u1eafc v\u0129 tuy\u1ebfn17 v\u00e0 85%c\u00f2n l\u1ea1i sinh s\u1ed1ng\u1edf
mi\u1ec1nNam Vi\u1ec7t Nam. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi Hoa\u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t c\u00f3\u1ea3nh
h\u01b0\u1edfng\u1edf mi\u1ec1nNam Vi\u1ec7t Nam, n\u01a1i h\u1ecd ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng
m\u1ea1nh trongl\u0129nh v\u1ef1c kinh doanhth\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i. N\u0103m
1956, ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1nNg\u00f4\u0110\u00ecnh Di\u1ec7m\u0111\u01b0a rach\u00ednh
s\u00e1ch bu\u1ed9c ng\u01b0\u1eddi Hoa ph\u1ea3i nh\u1eadpqu\u1ed1c t\u1ecbch Vi\u1ec7t
Nam ho\u1eb7c h\u1ecd s\u1ebd b\u1ecb tr\u1ee5c xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ecfi l\u00e3nhth\u1ed5, ng\u01b0\u1ee3c
l\u1ea1i, H\u00e0N\u1ed9i v\u00e0 B\u1eafc Kinh\u0111\u1ed3ng \u00fd tr\u00ean nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc v\u1ec1
vi\u1ec7c choph\u00e9p Hoa ki\u1ec1ut\u1ef1 ch\u1ecdnl\u1ef1aqu\u1ed1c t\u1ecbch c\u1ee7a
m\u00ecnh. Ch\u00ednhs\u00e1chc\u1ee7aVi\u1ec7t Nam t\u1eeb n\u0103m1976\u0111\u00e3b\u1ecb

\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng b\u1edfi s\u1ef1thay\u0111\u1ed5i nhanhch\u00f3ng c\u1ee7a m\u1ed1i

quan h\u1ec7 gi\u1eefaVi\u1ec7t Nam v\u00e0 TrungQu\u1ed1c, v\u1edbi n\u1ed7i e
ng\u1ea1i r\u1eb1ng TrungQu\u1ed1c c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng Hoa ki\u1ec1u\u0111\u1ec3
\u00e9p Vi\u1ec7t Nam theoc\u00e1c ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh. V\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1

Page3 of16
Hoa ki\u1ec1u\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 Vi\u1ec7t Nam xeml\u00e0m\u1ed9t th\u1eed
th\u00e1ch\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi ch\u1ee7 quy\u1ec1nqu\u1ed1c giah\u01a1nl\u00e0m\u1ed9t v\u1ea5n
\u0111\u1ec1n\u1ed9i b\u1ed9 \u0111\u01a1nthu\u1ea7n.[14][15] Ch\u00ednhs\u00e1ch m\u1ed9t qu\u1ed1c

t\u1ecbch b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7u, Hoa ki\u1ec1u n\u1ebfukh\u00f4ng nh\u1eadpqu\u1ed1c t\u1ecbch
Vi\u1ec7t Nam s\u1ebd b\u1ecb choth\u00f4i vi\u1ec7c,[14] c\u00e1c b\u00e1o v\u00e0 c\u01a1 s\u1edf
gi\u00e1o d\u1ee5c ti\u1ebfng Hoa c\u0169ng b\u1ecb\u0111\u00f3ngc\u1eeda.[16] T\u1eeb n\u0103m
1977\u0111\u00e3c\u00f3 70.000 Hoa ki\u1ec1ut\u1eeb Vi\u1ec7t Nam quay v\u1ec1
TrungQu\u1ed1c.[17] Cho\u0111\u1ebfnth\u1eddi\u0111i\u1ec3mx\u1ea3yracu\u1ed9c
chi\u1ebfn\u0111\u00e3c\u00f3ch\u1eebng 160.000 Hoa ki\u1ec1uh\u1ed3i h\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1eeb
Vi\u1ec7t Nam b\u1eb1ng\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng bi\u1ec3n ho\u1eb7c\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng b\u1ed9 qua
C\u1eedakh\u1ea9uH\u1eefuNgh\u1ecb.[18]

Tuy\u00eanb\u1ed1 ch\u1ee7 quy\u1ec1nc\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t Nam th\u1ed1ng
nh\u1ea5t n\u0103m1975\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c qu\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea3oHo\u00e0ng Sa v\u00e0
Tr\u01b0\u1eddng Sa; c\u00e1ch\u1ee9ng x\u1eed c\u1ee7aVi\u1ec7t Nam\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi
ng\u01b0\u1eddi Vi\u1ec7t g\u1ed1c Hoa; v\u00e0 c\u1ed1 g\u1eafng c\u1ee7aVi\u1ec7t Nam
trongvi\u1ec7c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng quan h\u1ec7 ch\u1eb7t ch\u1ebd gi\u1eefaba
n\u01b0\u1edbc\u0110\u00f4ngD\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c B\u1eafc Kinh xeml\u00e0 n\u1ed7 l\u1ef1c
nh\u1eb1mth\u1ed1ng tr\u1ecb\u0110\u00f4ngD\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u00e0 l\u00e0v\u00ed d\u1ee5 v\u1ec1 s\u1ef1 h\u1ed7n
x\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ee7aVi\u1ec7t Nam.[19] T\u1eeb th\u00e1ng 8n\u0103m1975,
TrungQu\u1ed1c b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7ugi\u1ea3mm\u1ea1nh vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 kinh t\u1ebf cho
Vi\u1ec7t Nam, c\u1eaft ho\u00e0n to\u00e0nv\u00e0o th\u00e1ng 6n\u0103m1978.[20]
C\u0169ng n\u0103m1975, TrungQu\u1ed1c choCampuchiavay
kh\u00f4ngl\u1ea5y l\u00e3i 1t\u1ef7 USDv\u00e0k\u00ed k\u1ebft m\u1ed9t hi\u1ec7p\u01b0\u1edbc qu\u00e2n
s\u1ef1 b\u00ed m\u1eadt v\u1edbi ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1nKhmer\u0110\u1ecf v\u00e0oth\u00e1ng 2
n\u0103m1976.[21] Ch\u00ednhs\u00e1chngo\u1ea1i giao c\u1ee7aTrung
Qu\u1ed1c v\u1edbi khuv\u1ef1c\u0110\u00f4ngNam \u00c1c\u0169ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c thay\u0111\u1ed5i
theoh\u01b0\u1edbng t\u0103ng c\u01b0\u1eddng quan h\u1ec7 v\u1edbi kh\u1ed1i ASEAN
v\u1ed1n\u1edf th\u1ebf\u0111\u1ed1i\u0111\u1ea7uv\u1edbi c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1nc\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3n

\u0110\u00f4ngD\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi c\u1eaft b\u1ecfvi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc
n\u00e0y\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c\u0111\u1ea3ng c\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3n\u1edf\u0110\u00f4ngNam \u00c1.[22]
Cu\u1ed1i n\u0103m1978, c\u0103ng th\u1eb3ng gi\u1eefaVi\u1ec7t Nam v\u1edbi c\u1ea3
Campuchiac\u0169ng nh\u01b0 TrungQu\u1ed1c\u0111\u1ec1ul\u00ean m\u1ed9t\u0111\u1ec9nh
m\u1edbi.

Ng\u00e0y 23 th\u00e1ng 12 n\u0103m1978, Qu\u00e2n\u0111\u1ed9i Vi\u1ec7t Nam
t\u1ed5ng ph\u1ea3nc\u00f4ngtr\u00ean bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi T\u00e2y Nam,\u0111\u00e1nhsang
Campuchia l\u1eadt\u0111\u1ed5 ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1nKhmer\u0110\u1ecf. Trung
Qu\u1ed1c c\u00f3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00fd do\u0111\u1ec3 tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1 v\u1ec1 cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfn
ch\u1ed1ng Vi\u1ec7t Nam s\u1eafpti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh.

V\u1edbi l\u00fd do c\u1ea7nkinh ph\u00ed\u0111\u1ec3 h\u1ed7 tr\u1ee3 Hoa ki\u1ec1uh\u1ed3i
h\u01b0\u01a1ng, th\u00e1ng 5n\u0103m1978, l\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ea7uti\u00ean TrungQu\u1ed1c
tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1 c\u1eaft m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7nvi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 kh\u00f4ngho\u00e0nl\u1ea1i\u0111\u00e3
k\u00fd choVi\u1ec7t Nam v\u00e0 r\u00fat b\u1edbt chuy\u00ean giav\u1ec1 n\u01b0\u1edbc[23].
Th\u00e1ng7, TrungQu\u1ed1c tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1 c\u1eaft h\u1ebft vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 v\u00e0
r\u00fat h\u1ebft chuy\u00ean gia\u0111angl\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c t\u1ea1i Vi\u1ec7t Nam v\u1ec1
n\u01b0\u1edbc[23]. Th\u00e1ng11n\u0103m1978 Vi\u1ec7t Nam k\u00fd "hi\u1ec7p

\u01b0\u1edbc h\u1eefu ng h\u1ecbv\u00e0 h\u1ee3pt\u00e1c" v\u1edbi Li\u00ean X\u00f4. Ng\u00e0y 22
th\u00e1ng 12 n\u0103m1978, TrungQu\u1ed1c ng\u1eebng tuy\u1ebfnxe
l\u1eeda li\u00ean v\u1eadnt\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t Nam.\u0110\u1ea7uth\u00e1ng 1n\u0103m1979,
\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng bay B\u1eafc Kinh - H\u00e0N\u1ed9i c\u0169ng b\u1ecb c\u1eaft[23].
Trongkhi\u0111\u00f3,\u0110\u1eb7ng Ti\u1ec3uB\u00ecnh n\u1ed5i l\u00ean tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh
ng\u01b0\u1eddi l\u00e3nh\u0111\u1ea1oquy\u1ec1nl\u1ef1c nh\u1ea5t TrungQu\u1ed1c.\u0110\u1eb7ng
nh\u00ecnth\u1ea5yc\u1ea3 r\u1eafc r\u1ed1i l\u1eabnc\u01a1 h\u1ed9i trongm\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7
kh\u00f3kh\u0103nv\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t Nam v\u00e0 cho r\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t
\u0111\u1ec3n\u1eafml\u1ea5ynh\u1eefng c\u01a1h\u1ed9i n\u00e0y l\u00e0m\u1ed9t h\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ed9ng
qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1.[9]. Trongchuy\u1ebfnth\u0103m\u0110\u00f4ngNam \u00c1
th\u00e1ng 12 n\u0103m1978, t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t cu\u1ed9c tr\u1ea3 l\u1eddi ph\u1ecfng v\u1ea5n
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c TrungQu\u1ed1c truy\u1ec1n h\u00ecnhtr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp, \u0110\u1eb7ng Ti\u1ec3u

B\u00ecnh tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1: "Vi\u1ec7t Nam l\u00e0c\u00f4n\u0111\u1ed3, ph\u1ea3i d\u1ea1ycho
Vi\u1ec7t Nam b\u00e0i h\u1ecdc" m\u00e0 ng\u00e0y h\u00f4msau b\u00e1och\u00ed ch\u00ednh
th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c c\u1eaft ng\u1eafnth\u00e0nh "ph\u1ea3i d\u1ea1ycho
Vi\u1ec7t Nam b\u00e0i h\u1ecdc"[23].

2.2/ Xung\u0111\u1ed9t khuv\u1ef1c

C\u00f9ngl\u00fac c\u0103ng th\u1eb3ng Vi\u1ec7t Nam-TrungQu\u1ed1c l\u00ean cao
th\u00ec\u1edf bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi ph\u00edaT\u00e2y Nam c\u1ee7aVi\u1ec7t Nam, ch\u00ednh
quy\u1ec1nKhmer\u0110\u1ecf, v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 b\u1ea3otr\u1ee3 c\u1ee7aTrungQu\u1ed1c,
c\u0169ng b\u1eaft\u0111\u1ea7uleo thang ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1 x\u00e2ml\u1ea5n
mi\u1ec1nNam Vi\u1ec7t Nam. C\u00e1c xung\u0111\u1ed9t l\u1ebb t\u1ebb\u1edf khuv\u1ef1c
n\u00e0y\u0111\u00e3 nhanhch\u00f3ng b\u00f9ng n\u1ed5 th\u00e0nh Chi\u1ebfntranh
bi\u00ean gi\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t Nam - Campuchiav\u1edbi h\u1ec7 qu\u1ea3 l\u00e0Vi\u1ec7t
Nam\u0111\u01b0aqu\u00e2nv\u00e0o Campuchia l\u1eadt\u0111\u1ed5 ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1n
di\u1ec7t ch\u1ee7ng Khmer\u0110\u1ecf.[24]\u0110\u1ee9ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc t\u00ecnh h\u00ecnh\u0111\u00f3,
TrungQu\u1ed1c quy\u1ebft\u0111\u1ecbnh t\u1ea5nc\u00f4ngx\u00e2m l\u01b0\u1ee3c Vi\u1ec7t
Nam v\u1edbi l\u00fd do "d\u1ea1ycho Vi\u1ec7t Nam m\u1ed9t b\u00e0i h\u1ecdc" (l\u1eddi

\u0110\u1eb7ng Ti\u1ec3uB\u00ecnh) nh\u01b0ng m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch ch\u00ednh l\u00e0ph\u00e2n
chia l\u1ef1c l\u01b0\u1ee3ng qu\u00e2n\u0111\u1ed9i c\u1ee7aVi\u1ec7t Nam\u0111\u1ec3 gi\u00fap
ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1n di\u1ec7t ch\u1ee7ng Khmer\u0110\u1ecf[25].

Ngo\u00e0i ra, theo m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 nh\u00e0 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9uqu\u00e2ns\u1ef1 T\u00e2y
ph\u01b0\u01a1ng, v\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t chi\u1ebfnl\u01b0\u1ee3c, TrungQu\u1ed1c th\u1eed
nghi\u1ec7mm\u1ed9t cu\u1ed9c chi\u1ebfntranhbi\u00ean gi\u1edbi c\u00f3 gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n

\u0111\u1ec3th\u0103md\u00f2kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng t\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u1ee3 c\u1ee7aLi\u00ean X\u00f4, sau

khi Vi\u1ec7t Nam gia nh\u1eadp H\u1ed9i\u0111\u1ed3ng T\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u1ee3 Kinh t\u1ebf
(SEV), v\u00e0 k\u00fd hi\u1ec7p\u01b0\u1edbc h\u1eefu ngh\u1ecb v\u00e0 h\u1ee3pt\u00e1c v\u1edbi Li\u00ean
X\u00f4 (1978), trong\u0111\u00f3c\u00f3\u0111i\u1ec1ukho\u1ea3nv\u1ec1 t\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u1ee3
qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1. N\u1ebfuth\u1ecfa\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0y\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tu\u00e2nth\u1ee7 nghi\u00eam
ng\u1eb7t, theo nh\u1eadn\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7aQu\u00e2n\u1ee7y Trung\u01b0\u01a1ng

\u0110\u1ea3ng C\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3nTrungQu\u1ed1c, n\u00f3 s\u1ebdl\u00e0hi\u1ec3mh\u1ecda

qu\u1ed1c ph\u00f2ngl\u1edbnv\u00ec\u0111\u1eb7t TrungQu\u1ed1c v\u00e0ot\u00ecnh th\u1ebf
l\u01b0\u1ee1ng\u0111\u1ea7uth\u1ecd\u0111\u1ecbch khi x\u1ea3yrachi\u1ebfntranhv\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t
Nam ho\u1eb7c Li\u00ean X\u00f4.[26]

V\u1ec1 ph\u00edaLi\u00ean X\u00f4, nguy c\u01a1 b\u1ecb c\u00f4 l\u1eadpv\u1ec1 ngo\u1ea1i giao
saukhi quan h\u1ec7 TrungQu\u1ed1c - Hoa K\u1ef3 tr\u1edf n\u00eann\u1ed3ng
\u1ea5mkhi\u1ebfnMoskvabu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea3i t\u00ecmc\u00e1cht\u0103ng c\u01b0\u1eddng

quan h\u1ec7\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi Vi\u1ec7t Nam. Vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 kinh t\u1ebf c\u1ee7aLi\u00ean
X\u00f4 choVi\u1ec7t Nam t\u0103ng\u0111\u1ec1ut\u1eeb n\u0103m1975\u0111\u1ebfn1979
t\u1eeb 450tri\u1ec7uUSD l\u00ean 1,1t\u1ef7 USD, vi\u1ec7ntr\u1ee3 qu\u00e2n s\u1ef1
c\u0169ng t\u0103ng m\u1ea1nh do s\u1ef1 ki\u1ec7nxung\u0111\u1ed9t Vi\u1ec7t Nam
Campuchia(t\u1eeb 125tri\u1ec7uUSD n\u0103m1977l\u00ean 600
tri\u1ec7u n\u0103m1978 v\u00e0 890tri\u1ec7u n\u0103m1979).[27]

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