D R A F T: This is a draft of a proposed position paper of the National Association of School Psychologists.It has not been approved by the NASP Delegate Assembly and, given its draft status, should not bedisseminated, quoted, or cited by any person except as part of its review and revision with NASPgovernanceexperience
. The child with gender dysphoria may demonstrate symptoms of depression, anxiety, self-harm, or oppositionality.
is an umbrella term which includes diverse identities and modes of expression. Aperson may adopt a gender expression that is inconsistent with cultural expectations associated withtheir birth assigned sex permanently
temporarily, or situationally. They may adopt an appearance thatis perceived to be both masculine and feminine (
), or they may mix masculine and feminineelements (
). Some may alternate expressed genders day to day (
. The transumbrella
includes those assigned female at birth who are or who wish to be living as men (
),and those assigned male at birth who are or who wish to be living as women (
). Many transpeople are indistinguishable from cisgender people of the same gender
They may or may not desirebody modifications to express their affirmed gender. Body modifications may be temporary (e.g.,shaving, hair style, binding, hormone blockers) or permanent (hormones, electrolysis, surgeries). Manytrans people prefer to live their lives without revealing their gender transition history to anyone
(colloquially, living “
”). Trans women typically
and trans men typically identifyas
Some trans people may perceive being trans as a passage, something that describes theirhistory, but not their present. The process of changing gender expression from that of one gender toanother is called
. The gender they transition to is called their
can include changes in clothing, grooming, name and/or pronoun changes and more.
can include hormones and surgeries.Some transgender adults transition genders. Many do not transition and do not desire to do so.Some students arrive at kindergarten already living in their affirmed gender, while others may express adesire to transition genders while in elementary or in secondary school. The majority of children under
age 9 identifying as the “opposite” gender do not persist in doing so in adolescence and early adulthood.The majority of youth age 11 and older identifying as the “opposite” gender persist in their identity
throughout adolescence and adulthood. For children under age 9, only reversible social transitions occur(adopting clothing, hair styles, toy/game preferences). The difference between those who persist in
identifying as the “opposite” gender and thos
e who do not persist appears to be related to the degreeof disgust or satisfaction with bodily changes brought about by puberty for the stud
ent’s birth gender.
Many such changes are irreversible, such as the extended growth spurt, lengthening of arms, beardgrowth, and voice deepening in trans women, or widening hips, breast development, menstruation, andearly fusion of bone growth plates leading to shorter stature in trans men. These changes precipitate anemotional crisis with risk of self-harm for many persistently trans youth. Medical treatment involvingthe administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) can put puberty on hold forseveral years, allowing the child time to cognitively mature. The puberty-delaying effect is completelyreversible
when treatment stops, puberty associated with the youth’s birth ge
nder resumes. Theyouth can make an informed decision to receive hormones for their affirmed gender at age 16 or older,avoiding irreversible signs of their birth sex and avoiding expensive and painful corrective procedures.
A person’s gender identity is d
istinct from their sexual orientation.
refers to anenduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, both sexes,transgender people, none, or all genders (APA, 2008).
One’s sexual orientation identity lab
el is typicallyderived from their gender identity, and not their assigned sex. For example, a female-to-male trans manwho is primarily attracted to men is likely to identify as gay. A male-to-female trans woman who isprimarily attracted to men is likely to identify as straight. Trans people are more likely to also identify asLGBQ than cisgender people.