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Biostatics

# Biostatics

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07/05/2011

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Bio-Statistics
:
Definition of statistics
It is the science that is concerned with collection, organization,summarization, and analysis of data; then drawing of inferences about a body of data when only a part of data is observed.
Data
Are the raw material of statistics.
Simply defined as numbers.
Two main kinds of data:
–
Result from measurement (such as body weight.(
–
Result from counting (such as No. of patients discharged.(
Each No. is called datum.
Sources of data
Routinely kept records. E.g.: hospital medical records.
Surveys.
Experiments.
External sources. E.g.: published reports, data banks, research literatures.
Definitions:
Biostatistics:
A term used when the data analyzed are derived from biological sciencesand medicine.
Variable:
The characteristic takes different values in different persons, places or things, so we label a characteristic as variable. E.g. : blood pressure, weight,height, hemoglobin.……
Quantitative variable
A variable that can be measured in the usual sense. E.g.: Weight of pre-school children, age of patients……
Qualitative variable
Can not be measured as the quantitative variable, e.g. ethnic group, possessing a characteristic or not such as smokers and non-smokers. Herewe use frequencies falling in each category of the variable.
Definitions

Random variable
:Results only by chance factors i.e. can not be predicted.
Continuous random variable
Does not possess gaps. E.g. height and weight.
Discrete random variable
Characterized by gaps or interruptions in the values that it can assume. E.g. No. of admissions per day, or No. of missing teeth.
Categorical (e.g. sex and blood groups.(
Numerical discrete (No. of episodes of angina.(
DefinitionsNote:
To summarize discrete variables we measure the proportion of individualsfalling within each category. For continuous variables we need measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion.
Independent variable
:Is a factor that we are interested to study. E.g. meat intake in grams per day.
Dependent variable (outcome variable(
:Is the factor observed or measured for different categories of theindependent variable. E.g. hypercholesterolemia.
Definitions
Population:
The largest collection of entities for which we have an interest at a particular time.
Sample:
Part of a population.
Random (probability) Sampling methods
1-Simple random sampling
:Use random number table.see next slide.(
2.Systematic sampling
: Include individuals at regular intervals. E.g.individuals No. 4, 7, 10, 13, …. Will be included.

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