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17132357 Ablation and Plasma Formation

17132357 Ablation and Plasma Formation

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Published by: orangebud07 on Jul 09, 2009
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07/08/2009

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AFRL-SR-AR-TR-W-0'
22
REPORT
 
DOCUMENTATION
 
PAGE
 
The
 
public
 
reporting
 
burden
 
or
 
his
 
collection
 
of
 
nformation
 
s
 
estimated
 
o
 
average
 
our
 
per
 
response,
 
ncluding
 
he
 
ime
 
or
 
,..««
 
yamering
 
and
 
maintaining
 
he
 
data
 
needed,
 
and
 
completing
 
and
 
reviewing
 
he
 
collection
 
of
 
nformation.
 
Send
 
comments
 
regarding
 
this
 
burden
 
t
 
^u
 
or
 
this
 
collection
 
of
 
nformation,
 
ncluding
 
suggestions
 
or
 
reducing
 
he
 
urden,
 
o
 
he
 
epartment
 
of
 
Defense,
 
xecutive
 
ervice
 
Directorate
 
0704-0188).
 
espondents
 
should
 
e
 
aware
 
hat
 
otwithstanding
 
any
 
other
 
roviston
 
of
 
aw,
 
o
 
person
 
shall
 
be
 
subject
 
to
 
any
 
penalty
 
or
 
failing
 
o
 
comply
 
with
 
a
 
collection
 
of
 
nformation
 
f
 
t
 
does
 
not
 
display
 
a
 
currently
 
valid
 
OMB
 
control
 
number.
 
PLEASE
 
DO
 
NOT
 
RETURN
 
YOUR
 
ORM
 
TO
 
THE
 
ABOVE
 
ORGANIZATION.
 
1.
 
EPORT
 
DATE
 
(DD-MM-YYYY)
 
31-12-2008
 
2.
 
EPORT
 
TYPE
 
Final
 
3.
 
ATES
 
COVERED
 
(From
 
-
 
To)
 
01-01-2006-31-12-2008
 
4.
 
ITLE
 
AND
 
SUBTITLE
 
ABLATION
 
AND
 
PLASMA
 
FORMATION
 
DURING
 
DIRECTED
 
ENERGY
 
TESTING
 
5a.
 
ONTRACT
 
NUMBER
 
5b.
 
RANT
 
NUMBER
 
FA9550-06-1-0393
 
5c.
 
ROGRAM
 
ELEMENT
 
NUMBER
 
6.
 
UTHOR(S)
 
Iain
 
D.
 
Boyd
 
5d.
 
PROJECT
 
NUMBER
 
5e.
 
ASK
 
NUMBER
 
5f.
 
WORK
 
UNIT
 
NUMBER
 
7.
 
ERFORMING
 
ORGANIZATION
 
NAME(S)
 
AND
 
ADDRESS(ES)
 
University
 
of
 
Michigan
 
1320BealAve
 
Ann
 
Arbor,
 
MI
 
48109-2140
 
8.
 
PERFORMING
 
ORGANIZATION
 
REPORT
 
NUMBER
 
9.
 
PONSORING/MONITORING
 
AGENCY
 
NAME(S)
 
AND
 
ADDRESS(ES)
 
Air
 
Force
 
Office
 
of
 
Scientific
 
Research
 
875
 
N
 
Randolph
 
St
 
Arlington,
 
VA
 
2203
 
Dr.
 
John
 
Schmisseur/NA
 
10.
 
SPONSOR/MONITOR'S
 
ACRONYM(S)
 
AFOSR
 
11.
 
SPONSOR/MONITOR'S
 
REPORT
 
NUMBER(S)
 
12.
 
DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY
 
STATEMENT
 
Approved
 
for
 
public
 
release;
 
distribution
 
unlimited
 
13
 
UPPLEMENTARY
 
NOTES
 
20090429207
 
14.
 
ABSTRACT
 
Continuous
 
radio-wave
 
telemetry
 
is
 
required
 
during
 
planned
 
tests
 
of
 
directed-energy
 
weapons
 
systems
 
in
 
order
 
to
 
characterize
 
in
 
situ
 
the
 
effects
 
of
 
laser
 
irradiation
 
on
 
different
 
target
 
materials.
 
Unfortunately,
 
the
 
incident
 
radiation
 
can
 
cause
 
disruption
 
of
 
the
 
radio
 
signal
 
during
 
the
 
directed-energy
 
testing.
 
Several
 
phenomena
 
associated
 
with
 
directed-energy
 
impact
 
can
 
lead
 
to
 
communication
 
path
 
losses,
 
such
 
as
 
ablation,
 
charged
 
particle
 
emission,
 
charring,
 
and
 
chemical
 
changes
 
in
 
the
 
target
 
materials.
 
Directed-energy
 
impact
 
on
 
the
 
target
 
material
 
leads
 
to
 
target
 
heating
 
and
 
consequent
 
ablation.
 
A
 
numerical
 
model
 
has
 
been
 
developed
 
to
 
describe
 
the
 
laser
 
induced
 
ablation
 
of
 
metal
 
surfaces.
 
he
 
model
 
describes
 
the
 
absorption
 
of
 
the
 
laser
 
energy
 
by
 
the
 
metal
 
and
 
the
 
resulting
 
temperature
 
rise
 
in
 
the
 
surface.
 
This
 
temperature
 
rise
 
then
 
induces
 
ablation
 
of
 
the
 
target
 
material.
 
Results
 
for
 
an
 
aluminum
 
target
 
irradiated
 
with
 
a
 
KrF
 
laser
 
were
 
obtained.
 
Temperature
 
profiles
 
in
 
the
 
target
 
material
 
and
 
surface
 
temperature
 
changes
 
are
 
presented
 
along
 
with
 
the
 
ablation
 
rate
 
as
 
a
 
function
 
of
 
time
 
as
 
the
 
aluminum
 
target
 
is
 
irradiated.
 
This
 
report
 
presents
 
results
 
for
 
cases
 
when
 
laser
 
energy
 
absorption
 
by
 
the
 
plasma
 
plume
 
created
 
above
 
the
 
surface
 
is
 
not
 
significant.
 
15.
 
SUBJECT
 
TERMS
 
Laser
 
Ablation,
 
Target
 
Heating,
 
Ablation
 
Modeling
 
16.
 
SECURITY
 
CLASSIFICATION
 
OF:
 
a.
 
EPORT
b.
 
ABSTRACT
c.
 
THIS
 
PAGE
 
17.
 
LIMITATION
 
OF
 
ABSTRACT
 
18.
 
NUMBER
 
OF
 
PAGES
 
19a.
 
NAME
 
OF
 
RESPONSIBLE
 
PERSON
 
19b.
 
TELEPHONE
 
NUMBER
 
(Include
 
area
 
code)
 
Standard
 
Form
 
298
 
(Rev.
 
8/98)
 
Prescribed
 
by
 
ANSI
 
Sid.
 
Z39.18
 
Adobe
 
Professional
 
.0
 
 
FINAL
 
TECHNICAL
 
REPORT
 
ABLATION
 
AND
 
PLASMA
 
FORMATION
 
DURING
 
DIRECTED
 
ENERGY
 
TESTING
 
AFOSR
 
GRANT
 
FA9550-06-1-0393
 
Iain
 
D.
 
Boyd
 
Department
 
of
 
Aerospace
 
Engineering
 
University
 
of
 
Michigan
 
Ann
 
Arbor,
 
MI
 
48109-2140
 
ABSTRACT
 
Continuous
 
adio-wave
 
elemetry
 
s
 
equired
 
uring
 
lanned
 
ests
 
f
 
irected-energy
 
weapons
 
systems
 
n
 
order
 
to
 
characterize
 
n
 
situ
 
the
 
effects
 
of
 
laser
 
irradiation
 
on
 
different
 
target
 
materials.
 
Unfortunately,
 
the
 
incident
 
radiation
 
can
 
cause
 
disruption
 
of
 
the
 
radio
 
signal
 
during
 
he
 
irected-energy
 
esting.
 
everal
 
henomena
 
ssociated
 
with
 
irected-energy
 
impact
 
can
 
ead
 
o
 
communication
 
path
 
osses,
 
uch
 
s
 
ablation,
 
charged
 
particle
 
emission,
 
charring,
 
and
 
chemical
 
changes
 
in
 
the
 
target
 
materials.
 
Directed-energy
 
impact
 
on
 
the
 
target
 
material
 
eads
 
o
 
arget
 
eating
 
nd
 
onsequent
 
blation.
 
umerical
 
model
 
as
 
een
 
developed
 
to
 
describe
 
the
 
laser
 
induced
 
ablation
 
of
 
metal
 
surfaces.
 
he
 
model
 
describes
 
the
 
absorption
 
of
 
the
 
laser
 
energy
 
by
 
the
 
metal
 
and
 
the
 
resulting
 
temperature
 
rise
 
in
 
the
 
surface.
 
This
 
temperature
 
rise
 
then
 
nduces
 
ablation
 
of
the
 
target
 
material.
 
Results
 
or
 
an
 
aluminum
 
target
 
rradiated
 
with
 
KrF
 
aser
 
were
 
obtained.
 
Temperature
 
profiles
 
n
 
the
 
target
 
material
 
and
 
surface
 
emperature
 
changes
 
are
 
presented
 
along
 
with
 
the
 
ablation
 
rate
 
as
 
a
 
unction
 
of
 
time
 
s
 
he
 
aluminum
 
arget
 
s
 
rradiated.
 
This
 
eport
 
presents
 
esults
 
or
 
cases
 
when
 
aser
 
energy
 
absorption
 
by
 
the
 
plasma
 
plume
 
created
 
above
 
the
 
surface
 
is
 
not
 
significant.
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Directed-energy
 
impact
 
on
 
the
 
target
 
material
 
leads
 
to
 
target
 
heating
 
and
 
consequent
 
ablation.
 
The
 
ablated
 
material
 
continues
 
to
 
expand,
 
compresses
 
the
 
air
 
and
 
forms
 
a
 
shock
 
wave
 
in
 
the
 
air
1
.
 
Within
 
he
 
plasma
 
and
 
near
 
the
 
shock
 
ront,
 
he
 
combination
 
of
 
high
 
air
 
temperatures
 
and
 
he
 
blated
 
aterial
 
auses
 
omplex
 
hemical
 
eactions
 
eading
 
o
 
onization,
 
recombination,
 
and
 
excitation.
 
n
 
addition,
 
chemical
 
eactions
 
between
 
he
 
ablated
 
material
 
and
 
air
 
molecules
 
are
 
possible
 
at
 
these
 
elevated
 
air
 
temperatures.
 
There
 
ave
 
een
 
umber
 
f
 
umerical
 
models
 
roposed
 
o
 
nalyze
 
he
 
aser-solid
 
interaction
 
nd
 
blation
 
rocess"'
12
'
14
'
15
.
 
e
 
eveloped
 
model
 
ased
 
n
 
inetic
 
description
 
of
 
the
 
Knudsen
 
layer
 
and
 
a
 
hydrodynamic
 
description
 
of
 
the
 
collision-dominated
 
plasma
 
region.
 
Preliminary
 
analysis
 
of
 
the
 
ablation
 
rate
 
of
 
various
 
targets
 
subject
 
to
 
directed-
 
energy
 
impact
 
was
 
performed.
 
The
 
ablation
 
rate
 
depends
 
on
 
the
 
surface
 
temperature
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
plasma
 
density
 
in
 
the
 
target
 
vicinity
2
.
 
In
 
this
 
present
 
paper,
 
we
 
report
 
on
 
an
 
initial
 
attempt
 
 
to
 
apply
 
his
 
ablation
 
model
 
o
 
general
 
case
 
of
 
an
 
aluminum
 
arget
 
being
 
rradiated
 
by
 
KrF
 
aser
 
in
 
vacuum
 
conditions.
 
The
 
model
 
predicts
 
the
 
ablation
 
ate
 
and
 
he
 
depth
 
of
 
the
 
resulting
 
crater,
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
the
 
temperature
 
profile
 
in
 
the
 
target
 
material.
 
MODEL
 
A
 
variety
 
of
 
models
 
are
 
available
 
or
 
the
 
description
 
of 
the
 
aser-target
 
nteraction
 
n
 
aser
 
ablation.
 
n
 
this
 
study,
 
we
 
shall
 
model
 
aser
 
ablation
 
of
 
metals
 
in
 
a
 
vacuum
 
using
 
ns-pulsed
 
lasers
 
with
 
rradiances
 
n
 
he
 
0
8
-10
9
 
W/cm
2
 
ange.
 
he
 
aser
 
rradiances
 
are
 
hosen
 
o
 
produce
 
he
 
equired
 
luence.
 
Several
 
processes
 
will
 
be
 
analyzed
 
n
 
his
 
model,
 
ncluding
 
surface
 
temperature
 
rise,
 
heat
 
conduction,
 
plasma
 
density,
 
ablation
 
rate
 
and
 
crater
 
depth.
 
SURFACE
 
TEMPERATURE
 
A
 
macroscopic
 
scale
 
description
 
of
 
the
 
laser-solid
 
interaction
 
s
 
used
 
in
 
this
 
study,
 
whereby
 
the
 
thermal
 
heat
 
conduction
 
equation
 
is
 
used
 
to
 
analyze
 
heating
 
of
 
the
 
metal.
 
This
 
approach
 
is
 
valid
 
or
 
aser
 
nteraction
 
with
 
metals,
 
n
 
which
 
case
 
aser
 
ight
 
s
 
absorbed
 
by
 
nteraction
 
with
 
electrons,
 
and
 
is
 
then
 
transferred
 
to
 
lattice
 
phonons
 
by
 
collisions.
 
For
 
metals,
 
the
 
energy
 
relaxation
 
ime
 
s
 
of
 
the
 
order
 
of
 
0"
13
 
,
 
nd
 
herefore
 
or
 
ns-pulsed
 
aser
 
beams
 
we
 
can
 
assume
 
optical
 
energy
 
is
 
turned
 
instantaneously
 
into
 
heat,
 
allowing
 
the
 
application
 
of
 
the
 
heat
 
conduction
 
equation
 
The
 
temperature
 
rise
 
n
 
the
 
target
 
material
 
due
 
to
 
the
 
aser
 
beam
 
will
 
be
 
computed
 
from
 
he
 
following
 
equation
 
,
 
cp^^
=
 
V\K{T{zj)yjT(zj)}+q
laser
{zj)
 
1)
 
where
 
=
 
specific
 
heat
 
of
 
the
 
material
 
p
 
=
 
material
 
density
 
K
 
=
 
temperature
 
dependent
 
thermal
 
conductivity
 
qiaser
 
=
 
heat
 
source
 
due
 
to
 
laser
 
radiation.
 
The
 
direction
 
nto
 
the
 
target
 
s
 
taken
 
s
 
the
 
positive-z
 
axis.
 
The
 
first
 
term
 
on
 
the
 
right-hand
 
side
 
represents
 
the
 
heat
 
conduction
 
in
 
the
 
metal.
 
The
 
heat
 
source
 
term
 
in
 
Eq.
 
(1),
 
which
 
is
 
due
 
to
 
the
 
absorption
 
of
 
laser
 
beam
 
radiation,
 
is
 
given
 
by
 
q
laser
(z,t)
=
 
^(z)I(z,t)
 
2)
 
where
 
l
 
=
 
absorption
 
coefficient
 
I(z,t)
 
=
 
laser
 
beam
 
irradiance
 
as
 
a
 
function
 
of
 
time
 
and
 
position
 
in
 
the
 
target
 
The
 
laser
 
beam
 
will
 
be
 
absorbed
 
by
 
the
 
metal
 
as
 
it
 
travels
 
through
 
the
 
target
 
material,
 
causing
 
its
 
ntensity
 
o
 
drop.
 
This
 
change
 
n
 
he
 
aser
 
beam
 
ntensity
 
s
 
given
 
by
 
he
 
Beer-Lambert
 
law
4
,
 
I(z,t)
 
=
 
AI
0
(t)exp
 
]n(z,t)dz
 
(3)
 

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