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Pneumatic Notes

Pneumatic Notes

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Published by: saliana binti sanusi on Jul 09, 2009
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06/28/2013

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CHAPTER 2.0PNEUMATICS __________________________________________________________________ 2.1Learning Outcomes
At the end of this course, the students would be able to apply and appreciatethe knowledge to:(1)Perform the safety and regulations apply in engineering workshopand/or laboratory.(2)Describe briefly about pneumatic control system.(3)Design the pneumatic circuit diagram and elements.(4)Correctly install components in the pneumatic, electro pneumatic,hydraulic and control system according to the given circuit diagrams.(5)Test runs the assembled system components base on the given circuitdiagrams.
2.2Pneumatics Theory
A fluid power system is one that transmits and control energy through theuse of pressurized liquid or gas. In Pneumatics, this power is air. This of course from the atmosphere and is reduced in volume by compression, thusincreasing its pressure. Compressed air mainly used to do work by acting ona piston or vane. While this energy can be used in many facets of industry,the field of industrial pneumatics is considered here. The correct use of  pneumatic control requires an adequate knowledge of pneumaticcomponents and their function to ensure their integration into an efficientworking system. Although electronic control using a programmablesequencer or other logic controller is currently specified, it is still necessaryto know the function of the pneumatic components in this type of system.
2.2.1What Can Pneumatics do?
Operation of heavy or hot doors.
Unloading of hoppers in building, steel making, mining and chemicalindustries.
Forming operations of bending, drawing and flattening.
Bottling and filling machines.
Pneumatic robots.
Component and material conveyor transfer.
Air separation and vacuum lifting of thin sheets.Figure 2.1 show the application of pneumatic component at chip bonding process which consists of a vacuum unit.
 
Figure 2.1: Chip Bonding.
2.2.2The Advantages and Limitations of Pneumatic
It has several operation modes; can be fully automated, manuallyoperated and semi automated mode.
It is clean, suitable for several processes which are very sensitive,especially for hazardous chemicals and electronic components.
The equipments are very cheap compared to other methods.
The accuracy of the end results is moderate.
Reduce production time and cost – mass production.
There is no other waste produced from the operating system except air.
Compress is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuation. Thisensures reliable operation, even under extreme condition (depend on protection material).However, pneumatic technology also has their own limitations. Listed below are the limitations of pneumatic technology:
Only clean air with lowest humidity is allowed to be in pneumaticsystem. So, compress air need good preparation to filter any kind of dirt and condensate.
It is seldom to get uniform and constant piston speed withcompressed air.
It has the limitation in producing the output force. It is suitable for non-heavy duty purpose.
The exhaust air is very noisy.
Compressed air is very expensive in terms of conveying the power  but the high price is remunerated by the cheap pneumaticequipments, fast and efficient production.
 
2.2.3The Basic of Pneumatic System
Pneumatic cylinders, rotary actuators and air motors provide the force andmovement of most pneumatic control systems to hold, move, form and process material. To operate and control these actuators, other pneumaticcomponents are required i.e. air service units to prepare the compressed air and valves to control the pressure, flow and direction of movement of theactuators.A basic pneumatic system, shown in Fig 2.2, consists of two main sections:Figure 2.2: Basic Pneumatic System
The Air Production and Distribution System
(1)Compressor: Air taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed anddelivered at higher pressure to the pneumatic system. It thus transformsmechanical energy into pneumatic energy.(2)Electric Motor: Transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy(3)Pressure Switch: Controls the electric motor by sensing the pressurein the tank.(4)Check valve: Lets the compressed air from the compressor into thetank. It is set to a maximum pressure at which it stops the motor and aminimum pressure at which it restarts it.(5) Tank: Stores the compressed air.(6) Pressure Gauge: Indicates the Tank Pressure.(7)Auto Drain: Drains all the water condensing in the tank withoutsupervision.(8)Safety Valve: Blows compressed air off if the pressure in the tanshould rise above the allowed pressure.(9)Refrigerated Air Dryer: Cools the compressed air to a few degreesabove freezing point and condenses most of the air humidity.(10)Line Filter: It helps to keep the line free from dust, water and oil.

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