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Beams

Beams

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Published by: warden1921 on Jul 09, 2009
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01/26/2012

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 TTT
IIIMMMEEESSSAAAVVVIIINNNGGG 
DDD
EEESSSIIIGGGNNN 
AAA
IIIDDDSSS
 
Beams and One-Way Slabs
Portland Cement Association
Page 1 of 6
The following example illustrates thedesign methods presented in the article“Timesaving Design Aids for ReinforcedConcrete, Part 1: Beams and One-waySlabs,” by David A. Fanella, whichappeared in the August 2001 edition of
Structural Engineer
magazine. Unlessotherwise noted, all referenced table,figure, and equation numbers are fromthat article.
Example Building
Below is a partial plan of a typical floor in acast-in-place reinforced concrete building.The floor framing consists of wide-modulejoists and beams. In this example, thebeams are designed and detailed for thecombined effects of gravity and lateral(wind) loads according to ACI 318-99.
30
-0
 30
-0
30
-0
 
   3   2
           ′
  -   6
           ″
    3   2
           ′
  -   6
           ″
 
18
x18
(typ.)24
x 24
(typ.)
 
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IIIDDDSSS
 
Beams and One-Way Slabs
Portland Cement Association
Page 2 of 6
Design Data
Materials
 
Concrete: normal weight (150 pcf), ¾-in. maximum aggregate, f
c
= 4,000 psi
 
Mild reinforcing steel: Grade 60 (f
y
=60,000 psi)Loads
 
Joists (16 + 4½ x 6 + 66) = 76.6 psf
 
Superimposed dead loads = 30 psf
 
Live load = 100 psf
 
Wind loads: per ASCE 7-98
Gravity Load Analysis
The coefficients of ACI Sect. 8.3 areutilized to compute the bending momentsand shear forces along the length of thebeam. From preliminary calculations, thebeams are assumed to be 36 x 20.5 in.Live load reduction is taken per ASCE 7-98.psf3.7eighteam
32.515014420.56
==
××
 Live load reduction per ASCE 7-98 Sect.4.8.1:
    
+=
TL150.25
o
 From Table 4.2 of ASCE 7-98, K
LL
= liveload element factor = 2 for interior beamsA
T
= tributary area = 32.5 x 30 = 975 ft
2
 K
LL
A
T
= 2 x 975 = 1,950 ft
2
> 400 ft
2
 o.59L1,950150.25o
=    
+=
 Since the beams support only one floor, Lshall not be less than 0.50L
o
.Therefore, L = 0.59 x 100 = 59 psf.Total factored load w
u
:w
u
= 1.4(76.6 + 23.7 + 30) + 1.7(59)= 282.7 psf= 282.7 x 32.5/1,000 = 9.19 klfFactored reactions per ACI Sect. 8.3:Neg. M
u
at ext. support = w
u
l
n2
/16= 9.19 x 28.25
2
/16= 458.4 ft-kips
 
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IIIMMMEEESSSAAAVVVIIINNNGGG 
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AAA
IIIDDDSSS
 
Beams and One-Way Slabs
Portland Cement Association
Page 3 of 6
Pos. M
u
at end span = w
u
l
n2
/14= 9.19 x 28.25
2
/14= 523.9 ft-kipsNeg. M
u
at int. col. = w
u
l
n2
/10*= 9.19 x 28.125
2
/10= 726.9 ft-kipsPos. M
u
at int. span = w
u
l
n2
/16= 9.19 x 28
2
/16= 450.3 ft-kipsV
u
at exterior col. = w
u
l
n
/2= 9.19 x 28.25/2= 129.8 kipsV
u
at interior col. = 1.15w
u
l
n
/2= 1.15 x 129.8= 149.3 kips
Wind Load Analysis
As noted above, wind forces are computedper ASCE 7-98. Calculations yield thefollowing reactions:M
w
= ±90.3 ft-kipsV
w
= 6.0 kips
*Average of adjacent clear spans
 
Design for Flexure
Sizing the cross-sectionPer ACI Table 9.5(a), minimum thickness =
l
/18.5 = (30 x 12)/18.5 = 19.5 in.Since joists are 20.5 in. deep, use 20.5-in.depth for the beams for formwork economy.With d = 20.5 – 2.5 = 18 in., solve Eq. (2)for b using maximum M
u
along span (note:gravity moment combination governs):bd
2
= 20M
u
 b = 20 x 726.9/18
2
= 44.9 in. > 36 in.This implies that using a 36-in. wide beam,
ρ
will be greater than 0.5
ρ
max
.Check minimum width based on
ρ
=
ρ
max
 (see Chapter 3 of the PCA publication
Simplified Design of Reinforced ConcreteBuildings of Moderate Size and Height
forderivation):bd
2
= 13M
u
 b = 13 x 726.9/18
2
= 29.2 in. < 36 in.This implies that
ρ
will be less than
ρ
max
.Use 36 x 20.5 in. beam. 

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