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Megaloblastic Anemia: A Case Study

Megaloblastic Anemia: A Case Study

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Published by romeo rivera

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Published by: romeo rivera on Jul 09, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/08/2013

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INTRODUCTION
Everyone knows that we can't live without blood.Without blood, our organs couldn't get the oxygen andnutrients they need to survive, we couldn't keep warm orcool off, we couldn't fight infections, and we couldn't get ridof our own waste products. Without enough blood, we'dweaken and die. There are diseases and conditions involving the blood. The most common is
anemia.
An anemia is a condition inwhich the number of red blood cells (RBC) or the amount of hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carriesoxygen throughout the body) is below normal. MegaloblasticAnemia (MGA), also known as Pernicious Anemia, is a rareblood disorder characterized by the presence of large,structurally and visually abnormal, immature red blood cells(megaloblasts). Decreased numbers and immaturity of whiteblood cells (leukocytes) and blood platelets (thrombocytes)may also occur.Megaloblastic Anemias are usually caused by adeficiency or defective absorption of either vitamin B12(cobalamin) or folic acid. As a result, they are also known asthe vitamin deficiency anemias. In most cases, thefundamental flaws leading to the several forms of MGAcaused by vitamin deficiencies are present at the time of birth and exist as a result of a genetic defect. In addition,certain immunosuppressive drugs may also causeMegaloblastic Anemia.As student nurses, we must be aware of the signs andsymptoms of the disease so we could be more effective indoing our duties.
OBJECTIVES
GENERAL:
 
 To improve our skills, knowledge and attitude necessaryto care for our patients with megaloblastic anemia.
SPECIFIC:
1.
 To understand the disease process, its etiology, signsand symptoms, pathophysiology and diagnosticprocedures,
2.
 To discuss and describe interventions for healthpromotion, prevention and treatment of patients withmegaloblastic anemia.
3.
 To develop a teaching program that will educatepatients especially those who are susceptible to anemiaby reiterating the importance of good and healthynutrition.
4.
 To assist patients in overcoming the anxiety anddepression brought about by the condition.
5.
 To promote awareness to individuals by impartingknowledge so they could learn and understand moreabout megaloblastic anemia.
Biographic data:
Name: Mr. XAddress: Caloocan CityAge: 40 years oldSex: MaleMarital Status: marriedReligion: Roman CatholicHealth Care financing: United HealthcareUsual Source of Medical Care: Health personnelChief Complaints: WeaknessMedical Diagnosis: Megaloblastic AnemiaDoctor: Dr. Romeo Rivera
 
History of present illness:
According to the patient, he was first diagnosed withMegaloblastic anemia last June of 2006 when he washospitalized for 3 days at the Martinez Memorial Hospital.He was admitted with chief complain of body weakness. Hereceived blood transfusion when hematology laboratoryresults revealed decreased blood count. From then on, heneeded blood transfusion every time his blood count wouldfall below normal.He was again hospitalized recently in the sameinstitution. According to him, his appetite was decreased andhad difficulty walking which is a common manifestation of anemia because of weak muscles. He was also pale andnoticeably irritable. The laboratory results showed analarming decrease in blood components. His hemoglobincount was 8.2 g/dl as compared to normal adult male rangeof 14 - 18 g/dl; hematocrit of 25% compared to normal adultmale range 40 - 54% and RBC count of 2.5 mill/mcl, normaladult male range 4.2 - 5.6 mill/mcl.
Past history
According to Mr. X, he had measles when he was young,aside from the usual fever and cough. He doesn’t rememberhaving immunizations although his mother has told himbefore that he completed his immunization vaccines whenhe was young,He is not allergic to drugs, animals, insects, food orother agents.
Accidents and Injuries:
No accidents and injuries.
Family History Illness:
Hypertension and diabetes on his mother side.
Lifestyle and Personal Habits

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