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The Ground Reaction Curve due to Tunnelling under Drainage Condition

The Ground Reaction Curve due to Tunnelling under Drainage Condition

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Published by Nguyễn Hòa
When a tunnel is excavated below the groundwater table, water flows
into the excavated wall of tunnel and seepage forces are acting on the tunnel wall.
Such seepage forces significantly affect the ground behavior. The ground response to
tunnelling is understood theoretically by the convergence-confinement method, which
consists of three elements: longitudinal deformation profile, ground reaction curve,
and support characteristic curve. The seepage forces are likely to have a strong
influence on the ground reaction curve which is defined as the relationship between
internal pressure and radial displacement of the tunnel wall. In this paper, seepage
forces arising from the ground water flow into a tunnel were estimated quantitatively.
Magnitude of seepage forces was determined based on hydraulic gradient distribution
around tunnel. To estimate seepage forces, different cover depths and groundwater
table levels were considered. Using these results, the theoretical solutions for the
ground reaction curve (GRC) with consideration of seepage forces under steady-state
flow were derived.
When a tunnel is excavated below the groundwater table, water flows
into the excavated wall of tunnel and seepage forces are acting on the tunnel wall.
Such seepage forces significantly affect the ground behavior. The ground response to
tunnelling is understood theoretically by the convergence-confinement method, which
consists of three elements: longitudinal deformation profile, ground reaction curve,
and support characteristic curve. The seepage forces are likely to have a strong
influence on the ground reaction curve which is defined as the relationship between
internal pressure and radial displacement of the tunnel wall. In this paper, seepage
forces arising from the ground water flow into a tunnel were estimated quantitatively.
Magnitude of seepage forces was determined based on hydraulic gradient distribution
around tunnel. To estimate seepage forces, different cover depths and groundwater
table levels were considered. Using these results, the theoretical solutions for the
ground reaction curve (GRC) with consideration of seepage forces under steady-state
flow were derived.

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The Ground Reaction Curve due to Tunnelling under Drainage Condition
Young-jin Shin
1
, Byoung-min Kim
2
, Shin-in Han
3
, In-mo Lee
4
, and Daehyeon Kim
51
School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette: iamyjshin@gmail.com
2
Underground Space Construction Technology Centre, Seoul, Korea
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea: inmolee@korea.ac.kr
5
Indiana Department of Transportation, West Lafayette
ABSTRACT:
When a tunnel is excavated below the groundwater table, water flowsinto the excavated wall of tunnel and seepage forces are acting on the tunnel wall.Such seepage forces significantly affect the ground behavior. The ground response totunnelling is understood theoretically by the convergence-confinement method, whichconsists of three elements: longitudinal deformation profile, ground reaction curve,and support characteristic curve. The seepage forces are likely to have a stronginfluence on the ground reaction curve which is defined as the relationship betweeninternal pressure and radial displacement of the tunnel wall. In this paper, seepageforces arising from the ground water flow into a tunnel were estimated quantitatively.Magnitude of seepage forces was determined based on hydraulic gradient distributionaround tunnel. To estimate seepage forces, different cover depths and groundwatertable levels were considered. Using these results, the theoretical solutions for theground reaction curve (GRC) with consideration of seepage forces under steady-stateflow were derived.
INTRODUCTION
When a tunnel is excavated below the groundwater table, groundwater may flowinto the tunnel and, consequently, seepage forces may develop in the ground seriouslyaffecting the behavior of the tunnel. Ground response to tunnelling can be understoodtheoretically by the convergence-confinement method. This method is based on theprinciple for which a tunnel is stabilized by controlling its displacements afterinstallation of a support near the tunnel face. The convergence-confinement method isbased on three elements: the longitudinal deformation profile, the ground reactioncurve, and the support characteristic curve. The longitudinal deformation profileassuming no support shows the radial displacement of the tunnel cross-section in thelongitudinal direction from the tunnel face. The support characteristic curve describes
394
Copyright ASCE 2008GeoCongress 2008
GeoCongress 2008
  o  m   a  s  c  e   l   i   b  r  a  r  y .  o  r  g   b  y   K  a   i  s   t   K  o  r  e  a   A   d  v  a  n  c  e   d   I  n  s   t .   O   f  o  n   1   0   /   0   8   /   1   2 .   F  o  r  p  e  r  s  o  n  a   l  u  s  e  o  n   l  y .   N  o  o   t   h  e  r  u  s  e  s  w   i   t   h  o  u   t  p  e  r  m   i  s  s   i  o  n .   C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   (  c   )   2   0   1   2 .   A  m  e  r   i  c  a  n   S  o  c   i  e   t  y  o   f   C   i  v   i   l   E  n  g   i  n  e  e  r  s .   A   l   l
 
the increasing pressure that acts on the supports as the radial displacement of thetunnel increases. Lastly, the ground reaction curve shows the increasing trends of radial displacement as the internal pressure of the tunnel decreases. Tunnelling belowthe ground water table induces additional seepage stresses (Shin et al., 2007), and theseepage forces are likely to have a strong influence on the ground reaction curve.Previous studies on the ground reaction curve by Stille (1989), Wang (1994),Carranza-Torres( 2002), Sharan (2003), and Oreste (2003) did not consider seepageforces. The effects of seepage forces on the tunnel face or the support system werestudied by Muir Wood (1975), Curtis (1976), Atkinson (1983), Schweiger (1991),Fernandez and Alveradez (1994), Fernandez (1994), Lee and Nam (2001), Bobet(2003), Shin et al. (2005). A simplified analytical solution of the ground reactioncurve was suggested by Lee et al. (2007); however, mathematical solutions of groundreaction curves influenced by seepage forces have not been suggested.In this study, based on these previous studies, the theoretical solutions of theground reaction curve considering seepage forces due to groundwater flow understeady-state flow were derived.
THEORETICAL SOLUTION OF GROUND REACTION CURVE WITHCONSIDERATION OF SEEPAGE FORCES
Theoretical solution for stress
It is assumed that a soil-mass behaves as an isotropic, homogeneous andpermeable medium. Also, an elasto-plastic model based on a linear Mohr-Coulombyield criterion is adopted in this study, as indicated in Figure 1.
1 3
( 1)
k k a
 
= +
(1)Here
1
 
indicates the major principal stress,
3
 
is the minor principal stress,
2
tan (45 )2
 
= +
,
tan
ca
 
=
, where
and
a
are the Mohr-Coulomb constants,
c
isthe cohesion, and
 
is the friction angle.
  
c
c
a
a
 
 
1
 
 
0
 
i
 p
o
e
0
 
0
 
0
 
FIG. 1. Elasto-plastic model based onMohr-Coulomb yield criterionFIG. 2. Circular opening in an infinitemedium
Figure 2 shows a circular opening of radius
0
with
0
1
=
in an infinite soil-mass
G
EO
C
ONGRESS
200
8
: G
EOSUSTAINABILITY
 
AND
G
EOHAZARD
M
ITIGATION
395
Copyright ASCE 2008GeoCongress 2008
GeoCongress 2008
  o  m   a  s  c  e   l   i   b  r  a  r  y .  o  r  g   b  y   K  a   i  s   t   K  o  r  e  a   A   d  v  a  n  c  e   d   I  n  s   t .   O   f  o  n   1   0   /   0   8   /   1   2 .   F  o  r  p  e  r  s  o  n  a   l  u  s  e  o  n   l  y .   N  o  o   t   h  e  r  u  s  e  s  w   i   t   h  o  u   t  p  e  r  m   i  s  s   i  o  n .   C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   (  c   )   2   0   1   2 .   A  m  e  r   i  c  a  n   S  o  c   i  e   t  y  o   f   C   i  v   i   l   E  n  g   i  n  e  e  r  s .   A   l   l
 
subject to a hydrostatic in situ stress,
0
 
. The opening inner surface is subject to theoutward radial pressure to the tunnel surface,
i
 p
(
0
means the ratio of effectivevertical stress and horizontal stress).Considering all the stresses on an infinitesimal element
abcd 
of unit thicknessduring excavation of a circular tunnel in Figure 3, when
 
is small, the equilibriumof radial forces with respect to
and
 
can be expressed as follows:
10
r
r r
 
   
+ + + =
(2)
210
r
r r
  
  
+ + + =
(3)If the tunnel is excavated under the groundwater table, then it acts as a drain. Thebody force is the seepage stress, as illustrated in Figure 3.
r r w
F i
 
=
(4)
w
F i
 
 
=
(5)In this state,
i
and
i
 
are the hydraulic gradients in the
and
 
directions,respectively, and
w
 
is the unit weight of the groundwater.Therefore, (2) and (3) can be rewritten as follows:
10
r r w
ir r
 
    
+ + + =
(6)
210
r w
ir r
  
   
+ + + =
(7)If the stress distribution is symmetrical with respect to the axis O in Figure 3, thenthe stress components do not vary with angular orientation,
 
, and therefore, they arefunctions of the radial distance
only. Accordingly, (6) reduces to the singleequation of equilibrium as follows:
0
r w
idr
 
   
+ + =
(8)
 
 
 
 
 
  
+
  
  
+
 
 
 
 
  
   
+
  
   
+
r      
      
    
 r
 
FIG. 3. Body forces under the groundwater table
G
EO
C
ONGRESS
200
8
: G
EOSUSTAINABILITY
 
AND
G
EOHAZARD
M
ITIGATION
396
Copyright ASCE 2008GeoCongress 2008
GeoCongress 2008
  o  m   a  s  c  e   l   i   b  r  a  r  y .  o  r  g   b  y   K  a   i  s   t   K  o  r  e  a   A   d  v  a  n  c  e   d   I  n  s   t .   O   f  o  n   1   0   /   0   8   /   1   2 .   F  o  r  p  e  r  s  o  n  a   l  u  s  e  o  n   l  y .   N  o  o   t   h  e  r  u  s  e  s  w   i   t   h  o  u   t  p  e  r  m   i  s  s   i  o  n .   C  o  p  y  r   i  g   h   t   (  c   )   2   0   1   2 .   A  m  e  r   i  c  a  n   S  o  c   i  e   t  y  o   f   C   i  v   i   l   E  n  g   i  n  e  e  r  s .   A   l   l

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