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Open Channel Flow

Open Channel Flow

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Published by Shuvanjan Dahal
Hydraulics Notes on Open Channel Flow
Hydraulics Notes on Open Channel Flow

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Published by: Shuvanjan Dahal on Oct 02, 2013
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01/18/2015

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Hydraulics
(Open Channel flow part)
Lecture notes
TU, IOEB.E. (Civil), Second year/second partPrepared by Dr. K.N. DulalYear: 2013
 
1
Chapter 5: Basics of open channel flow
5.1 IntroductionOpen Channel flow/Free surface flowAn open channel is a conduit for flow which has a free surface, which is subjected to atmosphericpressure. The free surface is actually an interface between two fluids of different density and will haveconstant pressure (atmospheric pressure). In case of moving fluid, the motion is caused by gravity, andthe pressure distribution within the fluid is generally hydrostatic. Open channel flows are almost alwaysturbulent and unaffected by surface tension.Examples: flow in streams, rivers, canals, partially filled sewersDifference between open channel and pipe flow
Aspect Open channel Pipe flowCondition
Uncovered, have free surface,atmospheric pressure at freesurfaceCovered, no free surface
Cross-section
Any shape, e.g. rectangular,Parabolic, triangular, trapezoidal,circular, irregularGenerally circular cross section
Cause of flow
Flow due to gravity Flow due to pressure
Surface roughness
Varies between wide limits,varies place to place
 
depends upon the material of thepipe
Velocity distribution
The maximum velocity at littledistance below the water surface.The shape of the velocity profiledependent on the channelroughness.The maximum velocity at the centerof the flow and reducing to zero atthe pipe wallvelocity distribution symmetricalabout the pipe axis
Piezometric head
Z+y where y = depth of flow;HGL coincides with the watersurface
 

, where p= pressure in pipe.HGL does not coincide with watersurface
Surface tension
Negligible Dominant for small diameter
 
2
Open channel flow Pipe flow5.2 Types of flowsBasic variables: Velocity (V) or discharge (Q), flow depth (y)a. Based on time criterionI. Steady flow: flow propertiesat any point do not change with time (dv/dt= 0, dy/dt =0, dQ/dt =0), e.g.flow of water through a channel at constant rateII. Unsteady flow:flow propertiesat any point do not change with time (dv/dt
0, dy/dt
0, dQ/dt
0),e.g. flood flowb. Based on space criterionI. Uniform flow: flow properties do not vary with distance (dv/dx= 0, dy/dx =0) e.g. flow through achannel of constant cross-sectionII. Non-uniform or varied flow: flow properties vary with distance (dv/dx
0, dy/dx
0) e.g. flowthrough natural channelc. Based on both time and space criteria
 
Steady uniform flow, e.g. flow through a channel of constant cross-section at a constant rate
 
Unsteady uniform flow,e.g. flow through a channel of constant cross-section at varying rate
 
Steady non-uniform flow, e.g. flow behind a dam
 
Unsteady non-uniform flow, e.g. flood flowSteady uniform flow is the fundamental type of flow treated in open channel hydraulics. Unsteadyuniform flow is rare. For such flow, depth of flow varies with time, but remains constant with distance,which is conceptually possible, but not possible theoretically.Classification of non-uniform flow
Pipe center
2
 
1
 h
 V
12
/2gV
2
/2gZ
1
Z
2
 EGLHGLDatumh
 Z
2
 Z
1
 Y
2
 Y
1
 V
12
/2gV
22
/2gHGLEGLChannelDatum

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