places not differentiated because of the presence of transitional fossils, and also where noconspicuous stratigraphic break is present.Permo-Carboniferous time, about 300 million years ago, was a period of great glaciation.The widespread distribution of Permo-Carboniferous glacial sediments in South America,Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Antarctica and Australia was one of the major piecesof evidence for the theory of continental drift and led ultimately to the concept of a super-continent, Pangaea. Glacial activity spanned virtually the whole of Carboniferous andEarly Permian time . Toward the end of the Carboniferous, around 290 million years ago,Gondwana, the southern part of Pangaea, was located near the south pole. Glacial centresexpanded across the continents, producing glacial tillites and striations in pre-existingrocks.The Late Carboniferous and Early Permian period was an exceptional phase in the earth’shistory when the precursors of the modern continents were assembled in the form of two big landmasses (Gondwana and Laurasia) which were connected to form asupercontinent (Pangaea) such that the major part of the land area was in the southernhemisphere. Since the Earth’s climate is dependent on land and ocean distribution, theglobal air circulation and climate were radically different from the present.
Past Glaciation evidence in Jharkhand State.
Rocks of glacial derivation are limited to the Talchir Formation at the base of Gondwanasupergroup. The Talchir, all over Peninsular India comprises a variety of rock typesincluding diamictite (tillite), conglomerate, sandstone, laminated varve-like shale-siltstone (rhythmite facies), and locally turbide deposits. The maximum known thicknessis seldom in excess of 300 m.The sediments comprising the Talchir Formation contain records of a chain of eventscaused by the climatic evolution during the Carboniferous–Permian boundary period inIndia. The occurrence of a boulder bed derived from a glacial moraine at the base of theTalchir Formation indicates presence of glacier ice near the basin periphery. Subsequentoccurrence of sandstone–siltstone beds and their sedimentary features signify evolutionof a large water body. Different research work suggests that the water of this basin wassupplied by melting of the glacier. The glacier later retreated far from the lakemargin when sediments were carried by melt-water streams.This development marks a relatively rapid warming episode, which reached a climaxwhen waves generated by intense storms created hummocky cross-stratification in thesedimentary layers. Several Gondwana basins in east-central India recorded this climatictransition in the basal part of their sedimentary sequence typified by the Talchir Formation. The warming initiated during late Talchir continued for a geologically longtime with substantial melting of ice in various regions leading to increase in sea level asevidenced by signature of marine transgressions (at Umaria, Manendragarh and