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Developing Countries

Developing Countries

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Published by Supply Knowledge
Technology, globalization, and international competitiveness: Challenges for developing countries
Technology, globalization, and international competitiveness: Challenges for developing countries

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Published by: Supply Knowledge on Jul 12, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/25/2013

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>4
Ubfgioloht, hlonald}audoi, aie diub~iaudoial
foksbududzbibvv= Fgallbihbv jo~ ebzblosdih foriu~dbv
Fa~l Eaglkai-
1) Diu~oerfudoi
Ugdv sasb~ u~afbv ugb ~olb oj ubfgioloht di bfoiokdf h~oxug aie foksbududzb+
ibvv, vrkka~d}bv ugb vu~aubhdbv oj ugb javubvu h~oxdih bfoiokdbv ozb~ ugb lavu 23
tba~v j~ok ugb sb~vsbfudzb oj ugbd~ ubfgioloht vu~aubht, vrkka~d}bv vokb oj ugb
`bt hlonal u~biev xgdfg a~b ka`dih du ko~b edjjdfrlu jo~ ebzblosdih foriu~dbv uo
~bsldfaub ugb javu h~oxug bwsb~dbifb oj ugb foriu~dbv kbiudoibe, aie u~afbv ugb
dksafu oj ugb ~dvb oj Fgdia oi ebzblosdih foriu~dbv) Ugb kadi a~hrkbiu oj ugdv
sasb~ dv ugau ubfgioloht dv ai dif~bavdihlt dkso~uaiu blbkbiu oj hlonaldvaudoi
aie oj foksbududzbibvv aie ugau ugb affblb~audoi di ugb ~aub oj ubfgiolohdfal
fgaihb aie ugb s~b+~bqrdvdubv ibfbvva~t uo sa~udfdsaub bjjbfudzblt di hlonaldva+
udoi a~b ka`dih du ko~b edjjdfrlu jo~ kait ebzblosdih foriu~dbv uo foksbub)
Vbfudoi > hdzbv a loih+ub~k sb~vsbfudzb oi ubfgioloht aie bfoiokdf
h~oxug) Vbfudoi 6 s~bvbiuv a hlonal ozb~zdbx oj fgaihbv di ~bhdoial foksbu+
dudzbibvv av ~bzbalbe nt bfoiokdf h~oxug) Vbfudoi 5 debiudjdbv vokb oj ugb
gdhg sb~jo~kb~v di ugb lavu 23 tba~v aie ~bzdbxv ugb vu~aubhdbv oj ugb gdhg sb~+
jo~kdih Bavu Avdai bfoiokdbv foks~dvdih ugb xbll `ioxi “haih oj jor~‛,
slrv ug~bb Vorug Bavu Avdai foriu~dbv) Vbfudoi 2 ~bzdbxv ugb vu~aubhdbv oj ugb
N^DFK foriu~dbv, ugb la~hbvu ebzblosdih foriu~t bfoiokdbv 'N~a}dl, ^rvvda,
Dieda, Fgdia aie Kbwdfo$) Du alvo a~hrbv ugau du dv ga~eb~ jo~ ebzblosdih
foriu~dbv uo ~bsldfaub ugb vrffbvv oj ugb gdhg sb~jo~kdih Bavu Avdai foriu~dbv
jo~ uxo kadi ~bavoiv) Oib ~blaubv uo ibx blbkbiuv di ugb hlonal foksbududzb
bizd~oikbiu) Ugbvb a~b vrkka~d}be di vbfudoi :) Ugb ougb~ dv ugb ~asde ~dvb
oj Fgdia 'aie uo a lbvvb~ bwubiu Dieda$) Ugdv dv fozb~be di Vbfudoi 8, xgdfg
alvo diflrebv a s~bldkdia~t aialtvdv oj ugb bjjbfuv oj ugb ~asde ~dvb oj Fgdia
oi ugb ~bvu oj ugb xo~le) Jdiallt, Vbfudoi 7 e~axv vokb foiflrvdoiv)
Ebzblosdih foriu~dbv krvu ebzblos ko~b ubfgiolohdfal fasandldut aie
h~baub~ jlbwdndldut uo vrffbbe di ugb ko~b ebkaiedih aie avtkkbu~df hlonal
bizd~oikbiu) Du dv ld`blt ugau ugb s~bvvr~bv oj hlonaldvaudoi aie h~baub~ diub~+
iaudoial foksbududoi hbib~aub vu~oih s~oubfudoidvu ~bu~bifgkbiu di noug
ebzblosbe aie ebzblosdih foriu~dbv) Ugbvb vgorle nb ~bvdvube) Ugb xo~le av
a xgolb xdll nb nbuub~ ojj dj ebzblosbe foriu~dbv jofrv oi dif~bavdih ugbd~ jlbw+
dndldut uo aemrvu uo fgaihdih foksa~audzb aezaiuahb ~bvrludih j~ok ~asde
ubfgidfal fgaihb, aie ebzblosdih foriu~dbv jofrv oi dif~bavdih ugbd~ berfa+
udoi, dij~avu~rfur~b, aie ubfgiolohdfal fasandldut) Ugb~b ~bkadi goxbzb~
la~hb avtkkbu~dbv di ugb hlonal vtvubk aie h~baub~ bjjo~uv ibbe uo nb kaeb uo
s~ozdeb vokb hlonal nalaifdih aie u~aivjb~ kbfgaidvkv)
- Hbo~hbuoxi Ridzb~vdut, Bekrie A) Xalvg Vfgool oj Jo~bdhi Vb~zdfb)
63
Diervu~dal Ebzbloskbiu jo~ ugb >1vu Fbiur~t
>) @ioxlbehb, ubfgioloht, aie h~oxug di loih+ub~k sb~vsbfudzb
>)1 Loih+ub~k u~biev
Oib oj ugb nbvu xatv uo vbb ugb ~olb oj `ioxlbehb di ebzbloskbiu, xgdfg dv
noug vonb~dih aie bildhgubidih, dv uo ua`b a loih gdvuo~dfal sb~vsbfudzb oi
noug ugb h~oxug oj sosrlaudoi aie ugb dif~bavb di azb~ahb sb~ fasdua difokb
'jdhr~b 1$)1Jo~ ugb jd~vu 1,533 tba~v oj ugb savu uxo kdllbiida, ugb hlonal
sosrlaudoi h~bx zb~t vloxlt)>Alugorhg ugb~b xb~b s~dzdlbhbe bldubv xdug
krfg gdhgb~ difokb er~dih ugdv sb~doe, azb~ahb sb~ fasdua difokbv gozb~be
a~orie %533 'di 1443 diub~iaudoial RV eolla~v$) Ugdv jdhr~b dv vonb~dih di
ugau du dv ~orhglt ugb vakb av ugau jo~ uoeat—v soo~bvu foriu~dbv) Tbu vokb+
ugdih ~bka~`anlb nbhai uo gassbi a~orie 1233) Noug ugb hlonal sosrlaudoi
aie sb~ fasdua difokb nbhai uo dif~bavb vdkrluaiborvlt) Ugdv vgdju xav erb
uo ugb foizb~hbifb oj kait jafuo~v, di sa~udfrla~= nbuub~ gthdbib0 ugb ebzbl+
oskbiu oj dihbidorv xatv uo ga~ibvv xdie aie xaub~ soxb~ uo arhkbiu
grkai aie aidkal bib~ht0 aie aezaifbv di ah~dfrlur~al ubfgidqrbv vrfg av
d~~dhaudoi, dks~ozbe vbbev, aie krludslb f~ossdih) Xgau dv bzbi ko~b
~bka~`anlb, xgbi zdbxbe j~ok a loih+ub~k sb~vsbfudzb, dv gox vreebilt,
bzbi vbbkdihlt bwsoibiudallt, noug sosrlaudoi aie sb~ fasdua difokbv nbhai
uo ~dvb j~ok ugb 1733v oixa~e) Ugdv u~bkbieorv h~oxug xav di la~hb sa~u lbe
nt ugb ebzbloskbiu oj ugb vubak bihdib, xgb~bnt kai`die xav jd~vu anlb uo
ga~ibvv jovvdl jrbl bib~ht jo~ s~oerfudzb uav`v) Ugdv arhkbiuaudoi oj soxb~
bianlbe ugb diervu~dal ~bzolrudoi xdug ugb fo~~bvsoiedih s~oldjb~audoi oj
s~oerfudzb afudzdut aie bwsaivdoi di ugb ~aihb oj s~oerfuv aie vb~zdfbv
n~orhgu uo ka~`bu)
Av a foksoriedih jafuo~, jr~ugb~ dks~ozbkbiuv di ah~dfrlur~b ~blbavbe
a vu~bak oj lanor~ diuo ugb ~bfbiult a~dvbi aie ~blaudzblt ko~b s~oerfudzb
diervu~dal vbfuo~v) Vdkrluaiborv xdug ugbvb ebkoh~asgdf fgaihbv aie
bigaifbe s~oerfudoi ubfgioloht, ~adl~oaev aie vubakvgdsv vrsso~ube vfalb
bfoiokdbv aie s~ozdebe ibx osso~uridudbv jo~ vsbfdald}audoi aie bwfgaihb)
Di ugb ba~lt idibubbiug fbiur~t, ugdv n~oae vofdal aie bfoiokdf u~aivjo~ka+
udoi vbu ugb for~vb uoxa~e ugb aezaifbe vuaiea~e oj ldzdih xgdfg dv uoeat ugb
gallka~` oj ebzblosbe foriu~dbv)
Ugbvb jd~vu navdf u~aivjo~kaudoiv xb~b jolloxbe nt vrffbvvdzb ~aedfal
dizbiudoiv aie fo~~bvsoiedih divudurudoial ~bvu~rfur~dihv) Foivdeb~, jo~
bwakslb, ugb aezbiu oj blbfu~dfdut) Ko~b o~ lbvv vreebilt, soxb~ forle nb edv+
u~dnrube di edvf~bub riduv diflredih diuo ugb gokb jo~ soxb~dih irkb~orv
lanor~ vazdih ebzdfbv) Ugdv ubfgiolohdfal fgaihb h~aerallt ~blbavbe xokbi
diuo ugb xo~`jo~fb aie dif~bavbe orusru) Ougb~ bwakslbv diflreb ugb jollox+
dih= hav aie ugbi blbfu~df ldhgudih dif~bavbe ugb lbihug oj ugb xo~`dih eat0
ugb ebzbloskbiu oj ugb havoldib bihdib riubugb~be soxb~ j~ok h~dev aie lbe
uo ko~b jlbwdnlb u~aivso~uaudoi0 ugb ublbh~asg, aie ugbi ugb ublbsgoib
~berfbe edvuaifb nt ka`dih du sovvdnlb uo fokkridfaub aie foo~ediaub
afudzdudbv af~ovv vsafb, bila~hdih ka~`buv aie jr~ugb~dih osso~uridudbv jo~
61
Ubfgioloht, Hlonald}audoi, aie Diub~iaudoial Foksbududzbibvv
vsbfdald}audoi aie bwfgaihb) Bzbiurallt, ugb ebzbloskbiu oj ugb vbkdfoierf+
uo~ vsaxibe ugb fr~~biu dijo~kaudoi ubfgioloht ~bzolrudoi xgdfg orhgu uo
nb zdbxbe av oib ko~b bsofgal diiozaudoi xazb ugau u~aivjo~kv ugb o~haid+
}audoi oj bfoiokdf aie vofdal afudzdut)6Av vrfg, ebzbloskbiu vu~aubht uoeat
krvu nb navbe rsoi ugb bzolzdih s~oerfudzb aie ebzbloskbiual lohdf oj
dijo~kaudoi ubfgioloht aie `ioxlbehb bfoiokdfv)
^bh~buuanlt, ugb nbibjduv oj all ugbvb kait gdvuo~dfal aezaifbv gazb iou
nbbi bqrallt vs~bae) J~ok ugb 1833v oixa~e, sb~ fasdua difokbv edzb~hbe
af~ovv foriu~dbv aie ~bhdoiv 'jdhr~b >$) Ugb nbibjduv oj dif~bavbe sb~ fasdua
difokb foifbiu~aube jd~vu di Bihlaie xgdfg vsaxibe ugb diervu~dal ~bzolr+
udoi, ugbi vs~bae uo Xbvub~i Br~osb, aie vooi ugb~bajub~ uo ugb Ridube Vuaubv
'RV$) Nt ugb bie oj ugb 1733v, ugb RV nbhai uo ozb~ua`b Br~osb di kait
a~bav oj diervu~dal s~oerfudoi)
Loo`dih au jdhr~b >, du dv iaur~al uo av`= xgau afforiuv jo~ ugb ea}}ldih
sb~jo~kaifb oj ugb RV? Uo a h~bau bwubiu, RV h~oxug xav vrsso~ube nt a
la~hb diub~ial ka~`bu ugau alloxbe n~oaeb~ bwsloduaudoi oj u~aivso~uaudoi aie
fokkridfaudoiv aezaifbv vua~udih xdug ugb ~adl~oae) Bkn~afdih ugbvb ubfg+
iolohdbv n~orhgu la~hb fovu ~berfudoiv j~ok bwubivdzb bfoiokdbv oj vfalb aie
vfosb) Ugb RV xav alvo a laie ~dfg di iaur~al ~bvor~fbv diflredih iazdhanlb
~dzb~v, a~anlb laie, udknb~, aie kdib~alv) Tbu, ko~b dkso~uaiu ugai ugbvb
foiu~dnrudih jafuo~v, ugb jorieaudoi oj Akb~dfai bfoiokdf h~oxug xav a
jan~df oj divudurudoiv aie ai bfoiokdf difbiudzb ~bhdkb xgdfg vrsso~ube
biu~bs~bibr~vgds, bwsb~dkbiuaudoi, aie ~dv`+ua`dih) A fo~b bws~bvvdoi oj
ugdv o~dbiuaudoi, ugb RV kat nb vade uo gazb dizbiube ugb s~ofbvv oj dizbi+
udoi duvblj― xgbi Ugokav Alza Bedvoi f~baube ugb jd~vu diervu~dal ~bvba~fg
aie ebzbloskbiu '^*E$ lano~auo~t) Ajub~ Bedvoi, ugb diervu~dal ^*E lan
xav qrdf`lt dkduaube nt kait la~hb RV foksaidbv) Nt 1433 ugb~b xb~b ko~b
diervu~dal ~bvba~fg lano~auo~dbv di ugb RV ugai di Br~osb)
Fdudih ^*E av ugb fo~b blbkbiu di RV bfoiokdf h~oxug kat lbae vokb
uo ugdi` ugau ugb volrudoi uo ribqral bfoiokdf h~oxug dv uo f~baub ko~b
~bvba~fg fasandldut di ugb ebzblosdih xo~le) Xgdlb ugdv o~dbiuaudoi kat gbls,
ugb diiozaudoi ibbev oj ebzblosdih foriu~dbv a~b noug vdkslb~ aie ko~b fok+
slbw= vdkslb~ nbfarvb uo a la~hb bwubiu ebzblosdih foriu~dbv fai auuadi dif~bav+
bv di s~oerfudzdut nt ka`dih bjjbfudzb rvb oj bwdvudih `ioxlbehb0 ko~b fok+
slbw, nbfarvb ugb `bt ~bqrd~bkbiuv oj ubfgioloht+e~dzbi ebzbloskbiu a~b iou
mrvu ibx `ioxlbehb)5Di aeedudoi, ebzbloskbiu ~bqrd~bv berfaudoi, saf`ahbv
oj ubfgidfal v`dllv, aie a xgolb vb~dbv oj divudurudoiv, ibuxo~`v aie fasandldudbv
xgdfg bianlb ugb bjjbfudzb rvb oj bwdvudih `ioxlbehb aie krvu nb sa~u oj, o~
bzbi s~bfbeb, ait vb~dorv bjjo~u uo f~baub ibx `ioxlbehb) Nbfarvb aee~bvvdih
ugbvb foivu~adiuv dv f~dudfal jo~ ebzblosdih foriu~dbv, ugb jolloxdih vbfudoiv
ojjb~ h~baub~ ebuadl oi edjjb~biu avsbfuv oj diiozaudoi di o~eb~ uo lat ugb
h~oriexo~` jo~ bwsladidih ugb vu~aubhdbv oj edjjb~biu foriu~dbv ozb~ udkb)

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