Hussein-McMahon Correspondencepromises Arab state in return for revolt against the Turks.The region of Palestine was not explicitly mentioned. Disputes between Arabs and the Britishover whether Palestine was meant to be included in these documents would fuel the conflict over nationalism.
Under Colonial SecretaryWinston Churchill,Britain splits the mandate of Palestine into theterritories of Palestine (west of the Jordan river) andTransjordan. In return for leading the ArabRevolt against the Ottoman Empire, theHashemitesare given rule over Transjordan to form anArab state under British supremacy. Jewish settlement is restricted to the remaining Palestine.
In the fourth Aliyah, roughly 82,000 Jews fleeing from anti-Semitism in Hungary and Poland,arrive in Palestine.
In the fifth Aliyah, due in part to the rise of Nazismin Germany, approximately 250,000 Jewsarrived in Palestine during this period. However, restrictions imposed on Jewish immigration bythe British authorities in response to events such as theGreat Uprisingcurbed Jewishimmigration in the later 1930s.
The1929 Palestine riotserupt due to a dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to theWestern Wall. 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded (mostly by Arabs); 116 Arabs killed and 232wounded (mostly by British-commanded police and soldiers).
August 23, 1929
In the1929 Hebron massacre67 Jews are killed, all but 8 of them foreign students from the localyeshiva. The local residents are saved by Muslim families and neighbours. Nonetheless, theBritish evacuate the Jewish communities in the Arab enclaves of Hebron and Gaza "to preventanother massacre", ending the ancient Jewish presence in the cities. Both communities wouldresume after the 1967 War.
The Arab leadership, led byAmin al-Husayni, declares ageneral strikewhich rapidlydeteriorates into a violent rebellion, known as theArab revolt,that lasts for three years. Themainstream Jewish defense organization, theHaganah, maintains a policy of restraint, but thesmaller Irgun(also called Etzel) group adopts a policy of retaliation and revenge. Roughly 5000Arabs and 400 Jews are killed.
ThePeel Commissionproposes a partition plan (map), rejected by the Arab leadership as itincluded a Jewish state. The Jewish opinion was divided as Jewish immigration was limited toonly 12,000, and the Twentieth Zionist Congress ultimately rejected the proposal as well.