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The Palestine

The Palestine

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Published by aceleaf
A brief history of The Palestine
A brief history of The Palestine

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Published by: aceleaf on Jul 12, 2009
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Palestine
A 2003 satellite image of the region, with national borders shown in light gray.
Palestine
is a name, which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between theMediterranean Seaand theJordan River .
In its broader meaning as a geographicalterm, Palestine can refer to an area that includes contemporaryIsraeland thePalestinian territories, parts of Jordan, and parts of LebanonandSyria.
In its narrow meaning, it refers tothe area within the boundaries of the former British Mandate of Palestine(1920-1948) west of theJordan River.Palestine can also refer to theProposed Palestinian State.Within the context of theIsraeli- Palestinianconflict, the use of the term Palestine can arouse fierce controversy.
Contents
 
Name and boundaries
The name and the borders of Palestine have varied throughout history, though Palestine hascertain natural boundaries that justify its historical individuality.
Other terms that have beenused to refer to all or part of this area includeArabistan, Canaan, Greater Israel,Greater Syria,  theHoly Land, Iudaea Province,Israel, "Israel HaShlema",Kingdom of Israel,Kingdom of  Jerusalem,Land of Israel, Levant,
 Retenu
(Ancient Egyptian),Southern Syria, andSyria Palestina.
 
'Palestine' (Greek :
Παλαιστίνη
;Latin: 
 Palaestina
הניתשלפ
 Palestina
نيطسلف
 Filas
ṭīn
,
 Falas
ṭīn
,
 Filis
ṭīn
) is a Latinized name given to the region of theIudaeaProvinceby the Roman emperor Hadrian
following the crushing Bar Kochba's revolt in 132-135
in an attempt to suppress Jewish national feelings.
In the Bible, the area inhabited bythePhilistineswas known as
 Pleshet 
 Genesis,X.13. The Philistines were a seafaring people wholived in cities along the coast. During the Late Bronze Age,Philistiawas located approximatelywhere theGaza Stripand the cities of AshkelonandAshdodare situated today in modern Israel. Philistia was a confederation of five city states:Gaza,AshkelonandAshdodon the coast, and EkronandGathinland.
The ethnic affiliation of the Philistines is not clear. The Philistine names preserved oninscriptions appear to "contradict the notion that they were Greek-speakers."
Some scholarsargue however that they were a non-Semitic group, with roots in SouthernGreecedating back tothe period of earlyMycenaeancivilization.
 A hypothetical link to the Anatolian people, basedupon mere phonological similitude to thePalaic language,seems tenuous but not impossible.
Non-Biblical texts
Ancient Egyptiantexts called the entire coastal area along theMediterranean Seabetween modern Egypt and Turkey
 R-t-n-u
(conventionally 
).
 Retjenu
was subdivided into threeregions and the southern region,
, shared approximately the same boundaries as Canaan, or modern-day Israel and thePalestinian territories, though including alsoSyria.
Early archeological textual reference to the territory of Palestine is found in theMerneptah Stele,dated c. 1200 BCE, containing a recount of Egyptian kingMerneptah's victories in the land of Canaan, mentioning place-names such asGezer, Ashkelonand Yanoam, along with Israel, which is mentioned using a hieroglyphic determinative that indicates a nomad people, rather than astate.
Egyptian texts of the temple atMedinet Habu, record a people called the
 P-r-s-t 
(conventionally
 Peleset 
), one of theSea Peopleswho invadedEgyptinRamesses III's reign. This is considered very likely to be a reference to the Philistines. TheHebrewname
 Peleshet 
(
תשלפ
 P 
əléshseth
)usually translated as
 Philistia
in English, is used in theBibleto denote "the coastal region northand south of Gaza which was occupied and settled by Philistine invaders from across the sea".
The Assyrian emperor Sargon IIcalled the region the
 Palashtu
in his Annals. By the time of Assyrianrule in 722 BCE, the Philistines had become 'part and parcel of the local population',
and prospered under Assyrian rule during the seventh century despiteoccasional rebellions against their overlords.
In 604 BCE, when Assyrian troops commanded by theBabylonianempire carried off significant numbers of the population into slavery, thedistinctly Philistine character of the coastal cities dwindled away,
and the history of thePhilistine people effectively ended.
In the 5th century BCE, the Greek historian and geographer Herodotuswrote in Greek of a"district of Syria, called
Παλαιστινη
(
 Palaistinê
)."
Syria, at that time, referred rather 

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