A challenging alternative to conventional robotic hand de-sign is to develop mechanisms which directly utilize the uniquearticulated shapes of human joints, as well as a tendon hoodstructure to actuate individual ﬁngers. Following a biologicallyinspired design may also reduce the total number of individualcomponents, resulting in an elegant design.The anthropomorphic robotic ﬁnger addressed in this paper(as shown in Figure 1) is based on a previously describedartiﬁcial ﬁnger joint  whose degrees of freedom, range of motion, and dynamic properties are close to that of a humanﬁnger, In this paper, we are interested in designing a closereplica of the human index ﬁnger along with its pneumaticactuation, and preparing it for high speed actuation throughkinematic model based simulation. In the following sectionsthe innovative mechanical design of the anthropomorphicrobotic ﬁnger is detailed, air dynamic model of the pneumaticsystem is derived, then the modeling and simulation resultsare validated through the experimental data.II. D
EVELOPMENT OF AN ANTHROPOMORPHIC ROBOTICFINGER
Although the anatomy of the human hand provides detailedsources of static models, such as joint structure, tendonsrouting, and layered skin, how to organically incorporatestate-of-the-art engineering advances into a fully functionalrobotic hand system is what we want to achieve in this paper.This section describes the mechanical design and prototypingprocess of our robotic ﬁnger.
A. Biomimetic design of bones and joints
In the human hand, the bones at the ﬁnger joints possessseveral biological features (As shown in Figure 2), includingthe unique shape of the bones at the MCP, PIP and DIP joints, which determines the degrees of freedom at the joint;the shapes of the ﬁnger bones along the tendon routing pathcreate moment arms for the tendons that vary with jointangle, a behavior critical for accurate hand function . Thevariable moment arms are necessary for achieving human-like joint-muscle movement relationships . Developing ananatomically correct robotic hand can help researchers to ﬁndmore critical human hand features that can only be revealedthrough dynamic interactions with objects.In order to accurately match the size and shape of thehuman ﬁnger bones. We used the index ﬁnger from a StratasysCorporation’s laser-scan model of human left hand bonessupplied in STL format, imported the tessellate facets intoPro/Engineer, and created solid models for each bone by ﬁttingnew surfaces to the scan geometry. Detailed parameters of therobotic ﬁnger are listed in Table I and II.At each joint of the human ﬁnger, joint capsule is formed byﬁne ligaments that seals the joint space and provides passivestability by limiting movements through its ligaments, theresets the range of motion for the joint. As shown in Figure 3,we have developed an artiﬁcial joint makes use of three maincomponents: a 3D printed joint with true to life bone topology,crocheted ligaments used to realize the right range of motion,
Fig. 2. 3D model of the laser-scanned human index ﬁnger.TABLE IP
HYSICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ROBOTIC FINGER SKELETON
Phalange Length (
) Weight (
MCP to PIP 53.4 5.5PIP to DIP 32.0 2.0Distal phalange 23.7 1.2TABLE IIA
PPROXIMATE JOINT MOTION LIMITS OF THE ROBOTIC FINGER
Joint Minimum Maximum
ﬂexionFig. 3. Biomimetic artiﬁcial joint design from .
and a silicon rubber sleeve providing the passive compliancefor the artiﬁcial joint. The artiﬁcial ﬁnger joint designed in thisway possesses the similar stiffness and damping properties tothose of the human ﬁnger .Between the two articulated joint surfaces of the humanﬁnger, cartilage and synovial ﬂuid can realize low-frictioncontact. In our design, thermoplastic coating is adopted toprovide low-friction surface at the ﬁnger joint. Although, whenencountered with the long term tear and wear, commonly