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BIT49 Julio 2006
54
SOLUCIONES
 
constructivas
L
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Instalación:
Las puertas en su lugar
Aclimatarlas al menos 24 horas antes de la instalación, realizar rebajessimétricos y escoger el modelo adecuado, representan las principales re-comendaciones para una correcta instalación de puertas.
a puerta cumple diversas funciones enun proyecto de construcción. Este ele-mento, por ejemplo, regula el cierre deun vano transitable, divide espacios, asumeun rol estético, influye en el ingreso de luznatural, participa en la ventilación, se con-vierte en vía de evacuación y hasta puedeaportar en el ahorro energético de las cons-trucciones.
Daniela Maldonado P. / Periodista Revista BIT
Puerta tipo americana con bastidores de pino finger joint con relleno interior de honey comb.
Gentileza Jeldwen
 
BIT49 Julio 2006
55
En el mercado existen diversos mode-los. Uno de los más antiguos es el de «puer-tas sólidas», elaboradas con piezas de ma-dera ensambladas que cuentan en prome-dio con tres largueros verticales, cuatro pie-zas horizontales ensambladas por tarugos yseis paneles unidos con las piezas principa-les. Además, se puede encontrar una varia-ción de este sistema, combinando la aplica-ción de largueros de madera sólida con vi-drios y paneles, dando lugar a las puertasvidriadas. Otra alternativa se encuentra enlas «puertas de relleno», fabricadas con dosplacas de material terciado, MDF, HDF liso,tableros aglomerados, placas moldeadas deHDF u otros en base de madera fijados conadhesivo a un bastidor perimetral. Para dar-le resistencia en su interior, se rellenan concartón corrugado o honey comb, un cartóntipo panel de abeja. También se observan las«puertas especiales», confeccionadas paraun uso específico, como las antifuego, antiruido, de alta aislación térmica, blindadas,de acero y de aluminio, entre otros.Se presentan en sistemas tradiciona-les compuestos por dos etapas, la coloca-ción del marco y posterior instalación de lapuerta. Además, se encuentran lasprecolgadas, que incluyen marcos, orificiospara cerradura y bisagras, y un kit listo parainstalar, facilitando la faena (ver recuadroPuertas precolgadas).
RECEPCIÓN Y ALMACENAMIENTO
El encargado de bodega debe chequearque los elementos que conforman la puerta,no lleguen golpeados ni torcidos. En el casode elementos enchapados, se debe revisarque no presenten rayas y que el enchape nose encuentre «englobado» o despegado en lasuniones. En el caso de recibir puertasprecolgadas, éstas deben clasificarse deacuerdo con el tamaño de la hoja, el anchodel marco y el sentido de apertura (derecha oizquierda). Deben llegar enzunchadas paraevitar que se desarmen durante los movimien-tos internos.Las puertas y marcos se ubicarán ensectores de la bodega limpios y despejados,almacenando en un mismo lugar elementosde un mismo tipo. Las puertas no deben co-locarse en lugares húmedos, ni expuestas alsol o al viento. No dejarlas por ningún moti-vo a la intemperie. Se recomienda que lasbodegas tengan un ambiente seco, con unatemperatura de entre 12º y 24º C. Se debenapilar en forma horizontal sobre tres o máspuntos de apoyo, nivelados, y a una distanciano menor de 10 centímetros del suelo. Los kitde precolgados se apilarán en forma vertical
BIT49 Julio 2006
55
 
BIT49 Julio 2006
56
SOLUCIONES
 
constructivas
en un muro de apoyo, teniendo la precauciónde no cargar fuerzas sobre las bisagras.Se recomienda apilar en lotes de nomás de 40 puertas y no poner carga sobreellas. El conjunto se cubrirá con melaminao algún material que evite suciedad o gol-pes ocasionados por movimientos dentrode la bodega. Se recomienda pedir a losfabricantes puertas y marcos prepintados,de manera que sean más estables ante loscambios de humedad. En el caso de ele-mentos enchapados es aconsejable darlesuna mano de sellante antes de despachar-los a terreno.En esta etapa es fundamental ordenary clasificar las puertas según las medidas yubicación, ya sean puertas de interiores ode exteriores.
ACLIMATACIÓN
Este punto resulta relevante. Se de-ben ambientar las puertas o aclimatarlasa la humedad y temperatura del lugar de-finitivo de instalación, entre 24 y 72 horasantes de la faena. La madera al ser unmaterial higroscópico, absorbe o despren-de agua según las características de suentorno. Si el lugar presenta un contenido
Almacenamiento y aclimatación depuertas.Separación o descuelgue de losmarcos de las puertasPresentación e instalación del mar-co en el vano.Aplome del marcoFijación de marco a tabiqueInstalacn de visagras en marcoColgado de puerta en visagrasInstalacn de pomel o pasador devisagraInstalación de cerraduraChequeo final de cerradura
de humedad diferente al de la puerta, éstapuede hincharse o contraerse generandoaprietes o atascos.
CONSIDERACIONES PREVIAS
Antes de instalar los marcos y las puer-tas, se debe chequear que los muros dondeéstos van insertos se encuentren debida-mente aplomados y alineados. Es importan-te revisar que el vano de la puerta tenga unaholgura de 1 cm de ancho y 5 mm de alto,con respecto a las dimensiones del marco,facilitando su aplome y nivelación. Se debetener especial cuidado en no exceder estas
INSTALACIÓN DE PUERTAS PRECOLGADAS
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           o                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 s                                                                                                                                           .
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