OLTP v/s OLAP
March 5, 2009 byDeepanshu Mehta We can divide IT systems into transactional (OLTP) and analytical (OLAP). In generalwe can assume that OLTP systems provide source data to data warehouses, whereasOLAP systems help to analyze it.
OLTP (On-line Transaction Processing)
is characterized by a large number of short on-line transactions (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE). The main emphasis for OLTP systemsis put on very fast query processing, maintaining data integrity in multi-accessenvironments and an effectiveness measured by number of transactions per second.
OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing)
is characterized by relatively low volume of transactions. Queries are often very complex and involve aggregations. For OLAPsystems a response time is an effectiveness measure. OLAP applications are widely used by Data Mining techniques.The following table summarizes the major differences between OLTP and OLAP systemdesign.
OLTP SystemOnline Transaction Processing(Operational System)OLAP SystemOnline Analytical Processing(Data Warehouse)Source of dataOperational data; OLTPs are theoriginal source of the data.Consolidation data; OLAP data comesfrom the various OLTP DatabasesPurpose of dataTo control and run fundamental business tasksTo help with planning, problemsolving, and decision supportWhat the dataReveals a snapshot of ongoing business processesMulti-dimensional views of variouskinds of business activitiesInserts andUpdatesShort and fast inserts and updatesinitiated by end usersPeriodic long-running batch jobsrefresh the dataQueriesRelatively standardized and simplequeries Returning relatively fewrecordsOften complex queries involvingaggregationsProcessingSpeedTypically very fastDepends on the amount of datainvolved; batch data refreshes andcomplex queries may take manyhours; query speed can be improved by creating indexesSpaceRequirementsCan be relatively small if historicaldata is archivedLarger due to the existence of aggregation structures and historydata; requires more indexes thanOLTPDatabase Highly normalized with many Typically de-normalized with fewer