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Chapter 8 Terms Learning

Chapter 8 Terms Learning

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Published by Tony Pham

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Published by: Tony Pham on Oct 04, 2013
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Tony Pham7
th
PeriodMr. Balbier AP PsychologyLearning: Modules 20-221.
 
Learning- A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.2.
 
Associative Learning- Learning that certain events occur together. The events may betwo stimuli (classical conditioning) pr a response and its consequences (operantconditioning).3.
 
Classical Conditioning- A type of learning in which an organism comes to associatestimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the UCS.4.
 
Behaviorism- The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2)studies behavior without reference to mental processes.5.
 
Unconditioned Response (UCR)- In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturallyoccurring response to the UCS, such as salivation when food is in the mouth.6.
 
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- In classical conditioning, a stimulus thatunconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response.7.
 
Conditioned Response (CR)- In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.8.
 
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulusthat, after association with an UCS, comes to trigger a conditioned response.9.
 
Acquisition- The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutralstimulus with an UCS so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a CR; the strengtheningof a reinforced response.10.
 
Extinction- The diminishing of a CR; occurs in classical conditioning when a UCS doesnot follow a CS; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.11.
 
Spontaneous Recovery- The reappearance after a rest period, of an extinguishedconditioned response.12.
 
Generalization- The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for a stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.13.
 
Discrimination- in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between aconditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS14.
 
Operant Conditioning- a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by an reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher 15.
 
Respondent Behavior- behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus;
Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classica
l conditioning
 
16.
 
Operant Behavior- behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences17.
 
Law of Effect-
Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences
 become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences becomeless likely18.
 
Skinner Box (Operant Chamber)- a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal canmanipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce, with attached devices to record the
animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant c
onditioning research.19.
 
Shaping-an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towardcloser and closer approximations of a desired goal.20.
 
Reinforcer- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.21.
 
Primary Reinforcer- an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need22.
 
Conditioned Reinforcer- a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through itsassociation with a primary reinforcer 23.
 
Continuous Reinforcement- reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs24.
 
Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement- reinforcing a response only part of the time; resultsin slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than doescontinuous reinforcement25.
 
Fixed-ratio Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforcesa response only after a specified number of responses26.
 
Variable-ratio Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement thatreinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses27.
 
Fixed-interval Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement thatreinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed28.
 
Variable-interval Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement thatreinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals29.
 
Punishment- an event that decreases the behavior that it follows30.
 
Cognitive Map- a mental representation
of the layout of one’s environment
 31.
 
Latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive todemonstrate it.32.
 
Overjustification Effect- the effect of promising a reward for doing what one alreadylikes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest as themotivation for performing the task 33.
 
Intrinsic Motivation-a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective34.
 
Extrinsic Motivation-a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threatsof punishment35.
 
Observational Learning- learning by observing others36.
 
Modeling- the process of observing an imitating a specific behavior 

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