Operant Behavior- behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences17.
Law of Effect-
Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences
become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences becomeless likely18.
Skinner Box (Operant Chamber)- a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal canmanipulate to obtain a food or water reinforce, with attached devices to record the
animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant c
Shaping-an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towardcloser and closer approximations of a desired goal.20.
Reinforcer- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.21.
Primary Reinforcer- an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need22.
Conditioned Reinforcer- a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through itsassociation with a primary reinforcer 23.
Continuous Reinforcement- reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs24.
Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement- reinforcing a response only part of the time; resultsin slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than doescontinuous reinforcement25.
Fixed-ratio Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforcesa response only after a specified number of responses26.
Variable-ratio Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement thatreinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses27.
Fixed-interval Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement thatreinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed28.
Variable-interval Schedule- in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement thatreinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals29.
Punishment- an event that decreases the behavior that it follows30.
Cognitive Map- a mental representation
of the layout of one’s environment
Latent learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive todemonstrate it.32.
Overjustification Effect- the effect of promising a reward for doing what one alreadylikes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest as themotivation for performing the task 33.
Intrinsic Motivation-a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective34.
Extrinsic Motivation-a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threatsof punishment35.
Observational Learning- learning by observing others36.
Modeling- the process of observing an imitating a specific behavior