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Memory Module 23-27 Terms by Tony Pham

Memory Module 23-27 Terms by Tony Pham

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Published by: Tony Pham on Oct 04, 2013
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Tony Pham7
Module 23: Introduction To Memory
1. Memory- The persistence of learning overtime through the storage and retrieval of information.2. Flashbulb Memory- A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.3. Encoding- The processing of information into the memory system for example, by extractingmeaning.4. Storage- The retention of encoded information over time.5. Retrieval- The process of getting information out of memory storage.6. Sensory Memory- The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memorysystem7. Short-Term Memory- Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the sevendigits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. WorkingMemory is a very similar concept that focuses on more on processing of briefly storedinformation.8. Long Term Memory- The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memorysystem.
Module 24: Encoding: Getting Information In
9. Automatic Processing- Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time,and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.10. Effortful Processing- Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.11. Rehearsal- The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.12. Spacing Effect- The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long termretention than is achieved through massed study or practice.13. Serial Position Effect- Our Tendency to recall best last and first items on a list.
14. Visual Encoding- The encoding of picture images.15. Acoustic Encoding- The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.16. Semantic Encoding- The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.17. Imagery- A powerful aid to effortful processing of mental pictures, especially whencombined with semantic encoding.18. Mnemonics- Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery andorganizational devices.20. Chunking- Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.21. Iconic Memory- A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.22. Echoic Memory- A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention iselsewhere , sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.23. Long Term Potentiation (LTP)- an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapidstimulation, believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.24. Amnesia- The loss of memory over time.25. Implicit Memory- Retention independent of conscious recollection, also called proceduralmemory.26. Explicit Memory- Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and“declare.”27. Hippocampus- A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicitmemories for storage.
Module 26: Retrieval: Getting Information Out
28. Recall- A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier,as on a fill in the blank test.29. Recognition- A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previouslylearned, as on a multiple choice test.30. Relearning- A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learningmaterial for a second time.31. Priming- The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

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