14. Visual Encoding- The encoding of picture images.15. Acoustic Encoding- The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.16. Semantic Encoding- The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.17. Imagery- A powerful aid to effortful processing of mental pictures, especially whencombined with semantic encoding.18. Mnemonics- Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery andorganizational devices.20. Chunking- Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.21. Iconic Memory- A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.22. Echoic Memory- A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention iselsewhere , sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.23. Long Term Potentiation (LTP)- an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapidstimulation, believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.24. Amnesia- The loss of memory over time.25. Implicit Memory- Retention independent of conscious recollection, also called proceduralmemory.26. Explicit Memory- Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and“declare.”27. Hippocampus- A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicitmemories for storage.
Module 26: Retrieval: Getting Information Out
28. Recall- A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier,as on a fill in the blank test.29. Recognition- A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previouslylearned, as on a multiple choice test.30. Relearning- A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learningmaterial for a second time.31. Priming- The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.