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Chapter 3_ IIR Filters - Digital Filter Design

# Chapter 3_ IIR Filters - Digital Filter Design

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Published by Sanjay Balwani

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Published by: Sanjay Balwani on Oct 04, 2013
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9/22/13Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronikawww.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/1/45
TOCChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Digital Filter Design
Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
3.1. Introduction3.2. IIR filter design3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation3.5. Bilinear transformation3.6. Examples
3.1 Introduction
IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (arecursive part of a filter) and areknown as recursive digital filters therefore.
Figure 3-1-1. Block diagrams of FIR and IIR filters
For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phasecharacteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable touse IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence.Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution.There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do nothave the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not.IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. Thismethod is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters.This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.
Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design method using reference analog prototype filter
FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,
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9/22/13Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronikawww.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/2/45
FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signalprocessing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the samefrequency response.The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that thenext output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample.The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas thedenominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function.Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.
Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic
The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal,whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of thesignal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would benegligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t beallowed.
3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designingstandard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters.The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter tobe used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design.The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is howan analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog todigital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtainedin this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by thefinite word-length side-effect.
3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters.Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

9/22/13Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronikawww.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/3/45
Figure 3-2-1a. Low-pass digital filter specificationFigure 3-2-1b. Low-pass digital filter specification
ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency;ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency;δ1 – maximum passband ripples;δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation;ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter;ap – maximum passband ripples
[dB]
; andas – minimum stopband attenuation
[dB]
.
Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:where:
fs is the sampling frequency;f is the frequency to normalize; andω is the normalized frequency.
Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

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