Lecture No: 3Composition of solid and liquid wastes3.1.Composition of solid wastes
It is not possible to give generally valid values for the composition of overall solidwastes both because data in many cases are not available and because waste composition asmentioned in the previous section varies strongly with level of industrialization, type of society and region of the world. For some of the individual types of waste such as residentialwastes some data and available and here it is possible to give some indication of thecomposition of the materials.
3. 2. Composition of residential solid wastes.
The solid wastes generated in residential homes are very often a mixture of severaldifferent materials especially if source separation is not implemented. And the waste istherefore often very complex array of materials.
gives an example of generalmunicipal (mainly residential areas) solid waste components in Denmark. The biodegradablefractions are food waste, garden waste, paper, diapers, cardboard, and newsprint, accountingfor almost two third of the combined residential waste stream ( as wet weight). The mainreason why especially the food waste account for such a large fraction (34%) of the totalamount of wastes generated is its relatively high density and water content. Often biodegradable wastes have higher water contents and bulk densities than the inorganicfractions. This is discussed further in the following chapters. The fractions of the wastes thatare considered suitable for treatment and recycling vary with region, tradition, legislation,material types, etc. For instance many of the industrialized countries have already or arecurrently in the process of developing advanced formal programs for recycling of metal,glass, plastic, paper and cardboard. Food and garden waste are often treated biologically. InDenmark for instance only the organic materials in the food and garden waste fractions areconsidered for biological treatment whereas only little paper and cardboard enters the biological treatment facilities as these materials are recycled directly. It is estimated that agrand total of 40% (wet weight) of the total mass of residential solid waste generated inDenmark is suitable for biological treatment such as composting or biogas production. Thisquantity accounts for about 50% of the total amount of residential biodegradable wastesgenerated.