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Energy from Solid and liquid wastes - VI

Energy from Solid and liquid wastes - VI

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Published by Mukul Narayan
It describes about the production of all kinds of energy from solid and liquid wastes.
It describes about the production of all kinds of energy from solid and liquid wastes.

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Published by: Mukul Narayan on Jul 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/20/2012

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Lecture No.12Urban Waste to Energy from Landfill Biogas Projects and by Pyrolysis Plants12.1. Introduction
The urban waste is usually dumped in so called municipal land fills or municipalrefuse-dumps. These land fills are usually away from the city and occupy substantial landareas. Urban waste is transported by road trucks and is dumped into the land fills. Landfillwaste gets fermented by natural bacterial decay (by anaerobic fermentation) and releasesmethane rich fuel gas. This gas is called land-fill gas or refuse-tip-gas. Obtaining the methanerich fuel gas from land-fills is the most economical and environmentally attractive method of obtaining energy from urban waste. Land-fill Gas is being used as a renewable energy sourcein several countries in the world (Table 12.1).
Table 12.1 Landfill Gas Project Sites (1998)
OutletCountryBoilers/heatingKilnsfurnacesElectricitygeneration/chp
*
Purification(pipeline)vehicle fuelOther knownapplicationTotalschemesTrials/scheme plannedUnited statesWest GermanyUK SwedenItalyHollandDenmark CanadaFrance NorwaySwitzerlandAustraliaBrazilIndiaChile714
+
52---1---11---1------------157------------2---------------------22
*
177**4
++
2---3--------------1---1---10---------1-----------------------1---11472133---------1---------------5443
+
197643311111111316------8---------1---1---11Total 331557133114632
 
* one scheme generates electricity and sells gas.+ includes one research project.** two schemes generates electricity and also gas for heating.++ Four schemes are recorded as “ Boiler, CHP”.
CHP = combined heat and power.Pyrolysis was tried for converting biomass from urban waste to energy. However, the pyrolysis is used mainly for making wood-charcoal.
12.2. Applications of Landfill Gas
Landfill gas contains predominantly methane (54% by volume). The landfill gas isused in following applications directly:--- As a fuel for burning in boilers (without purification)--- As a fuel for Kilns, Furnaces.The purified methane obtained from landfill gas is used in following applications---- As a vehicle fuel.
Fig 12.1 Application of Landfill gas (LFG).---As a fuel for diesel engines.
URBAN WASTE
LANDFILLGASRAWLANDFILL
FILTERS &PURIFIERS
FUEL FOR 
IC
ELECTRICPOWER FURNACESDOMESTI 
ENERGY FOR URBANCONSUMERS
 
--- As a fuel for Diesel Engine, to produce electrical energy---After upgrading, supplied as fuel gas to domestic consumers.
12.3. Composition of Landfill Gas
The land-fill gas is generated by the fermentation of organic matter dumped in thelandfill. The process sis called anaerobic fermentation i.e. decomposition caused by(anaerobe, the microorganisms) without need of oxygen. This process is suitable for municipal manure. The process takes place at low temperatures up to 60
°
C and requiresmoisture. The gases produced vary in composition with time taken by the process (
Fig.12.2
).After a period of 2 months from starting, the landfill gas has mainly methane (52%) andcarbon dioxide (46%). During initial periods other gases like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen etc.are released in different proportions.
Fig.12.2 Composition of the landfill gas changing with time
During the decomposition, the temperature of the upper portion of the land-fill rises toabout 60
°
C. Landfill gas is not a pure methane carbon dioxide mix. It has several other gasesincluding some corrosive gases. For simple burning applications such as furnaces and kilns,the landfill gas is used without separation of methane and other constituents.For domestic cooking gas, the landfill gas is converted to compressed Natural GAS(CNG) or Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) by intermediate process. For use in vehicles as a fuel,the methane gas is separated form the total landfill gas and is purified to pure methane.

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Dear sir the part 7 is missing, i'm a agricultural graduates! much interested on this pl upload part 7 or sent to my email vijiag25@gmail.com
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